Anima antico Egitto
Ba

Ci sono tre diversi principi spirituali nella vita dell’uomo egizio.

L’Akh, una forza spirituale e sovrannaturale, è rappresentato dall’Ibis Piumato, lo stesso segno geroglifico forma la radice del vero “essere efficace, benefico, glorioso”.
In contrapposizione al corpo, che appartiene alla terra, l’akh appartiene al cielo.
Nelle epoche più remote era appannaggio esclusivo degli dei e dei faraoni, in quanto esseri divini, infatti durante l’Antico Regno, il sovrano era sottoposto ad un rito particolare il “sakh”, inteso a spiritualizzarlo e a renderlo un akh, cioè uno spirito.
Presto la concezione dell’akh divenne propria anche dei comuni mortali. Raggiungere il proprio akh, significava raggiungere la morte e quindi una dimensione come quella dell'”io” spirituale.

Il Ba si assimila maggiormente al concetto di anima cristiano.
Simboleggiato da un uccello e talvolta a partire dal XVIII dinastia, da un volatile dalla testa umana.
Sembra che in origine il ba, fosse la facoltà propria degli dei di assumere diverse forme.
Nelle tombe è facile vedere il ba rappresentato nell’atto di volare intorno al sepolcro o di dissetarsi ad uno stagno.
Al di là della morte il ba continuava a vivere, conservando non il corpo, ma soltanto le proprietà che animava l’essere vivente di cui era stato parte.

Il Ka è uno dei concetti spirituali di più difficile interpretazione.
Nel corso dei secoli il senso attribuito a questa parola ha subito notevoli mutazioni e si è arricchito di significati diversi:
Secondo i primi egittologi il Ka esprimeva “l’essere, la persona, l’individualità”, in un secondo tempo Lepage-Renouf ha sottolineato i diversi caratteri di genio, dio-protettore e doppio spirituale, proponendo un’interpretazione, ripresa poi da Maspero, che definì il Ka come una “proiezione vivente della figura umana, un doppio riproducente i dettagli dell’individuo a cui appartiene”.
Per altri studiosi il Ka era la potenza generatrice e la forza sessuale. Il segno geroglifico del Ka consiste in due braccia protese all’abbraccio, ad un gesto cioè di protezione, questo ha avvalorato l’ipotesi di un dio protettore, un ipotesi molto discutibile in quanto le braccia alzate non hanno nulla dell’abbraccio, indicano invece il segno del doppio.
Dunque il Ka proteggeva i vivi, ma ancor di più i morti, infatti per gli Egizi non era altro che “raggiungere il proprio Ka”.

Il Ka è uno dei concetti spirituali di più difficile interpretazione.
Nel corso dei secoli il senso attribuito a questa parola ha subito notevoli mutazioni e si è arricchito di significati diversi:
Secondo i primi egittologi il Ka esprimeva “l’essere, la persona, l’individualità”, in un secondo tempo Lepage-Renouf ha sottolineato i diversi caratteri di genio, dio-protettore e doppio spirituale, proponendo un’interpretazione, ripresa poi da Maspero, che definì il Ka come una “proiezione vivente della figura umana, un doppio riproducente i dettagli dell’individuo a cui appartiene”.
Per altri studiosi il Ka era la potenza generatrice e la forza sessuale. Il segno geroglifico del Ka consiste in due braccia protese all’abbraccio, ad un gesto cioè di protezione, questo ha avvalorato l’ipotesi di un dio protettore, un ipotesi molto discutibile in quanto le braccia alzate non hanno nulla dell’abbraccio, indicano invece il segno del doppio.
Dunque il Ka proteggeva i vivi, ma ancor di più i morti, infatti per gli Egizi non era altro che “raggiungere il proprio Ka”.

Il viaggio dell’anima nell’aldilà
I concetti di Akh, ba e Ka
I Ka del dio Ra

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