FORTE DI BARD

Forte di Bard

14.467 mq di superficie, 283 locali, 106 metri di dislivello, 806 gradini, 2.036 mq di cortili interni, 9.000 mq di tetti, 1.295 mq di corridoi, 385 porte, 323 finestre e 296 feritoie.

Questo è il forte di Bard, l’imponente baluardo edificato nel XIX secolo dai Savoia.

Grazie alla sua posizione strategica, il forte sorge su una rocca situata all’imbocco della stretta gola attraverso la quale si accede alla Valle, permetteva un’agevole controllo dei transiti da e per la Francia.

Testimonianze storiche certificano la presenza di alcune fortificazioni nella zona, già all’epoca di Teodorico I nel VI secolo.

Intorno alla metà del Duecento il controllo passò dalla potente signoria dei conti di Bard al casato sabaudo.

Tuttavia soltanto nel 1661 Carlo Emanuele II, duca di Savoia, dopo lo smantellamento delle piazzeforti di Verrès e Montjovet, concentrò a Bard il presidio del Ducato di Savoia nella Valle.

Il forte, come lo si vede attualmente, fu edificato durante il regno di Carlo Alberto di Savoia tra il 1830 e il 1838, su una preesistente struttura medievale del X secolo, costruita a sua volta su fondamenta di epoca romana.

La fortezza fu l’avamposto difensivo dell’esercito austro-piemontese che nell’anno 1800 rallentò la discesa di Napoleone Bonaparte in Italia e dei suoi 40.000 uomini dell’Armée de réserve.

Il 14 maggio Napoleone con il suo esercito varcò il Gran San Bernardo, proseguendo speditamente fino a Bard, dove l’avanzata fu arrestata dalla guarnigione a difesa della fortezza, comandata dal capitano Von Bernkopf.

Dopo quattordici giorni d’eroica resistenza, il capitano firmò la resa, ottenendo l’onore delle armi.

Bonaparte indispettito dalla strenua resistenza dei soldati sabaudi lo fece radere al suolo.

Soltanto nel 1830 Carlo Felice di Savoia, temendo nuove aggressioni da parte dei francesi, affidò a Francesco Olivero, un ingegnere militare, il compito di redigere un progetto per la ricostruzione del forte.

I lavori proseguirono per otto anni e furono realizzati diversi corpi di fabbrica disposti su piani differenti.

In basso, su due distinti livelli, ’Opera Ferdinando e l’Opera Mortai, l’Opera Vittorio nella parte centrale e più in alto l’Opera Gola e l’Opera Carlo Alberto.

Le stanze erano 283 e potevano ospitare 416 soldati, il doppio in caso di utilizzo di giacigli a terra, inoltre la costruzione era dotata di 176 locali di servizio che si affacciavano su un ampio cortile interno, facente funzione di piazza d’armi.

In ampi magazzini ubicati presso l’Opera Mortai erano custodite munizioni e provviste di cibo per tre mesi.

Alla fine del XIX secolo il forte cadde in disuso e fino al 1975 fu adibito a polveriera dell’Esercito Italiano, infine divenne proprietà della Valle d’Aosta

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI
Forte di Exilles

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