Uova Carl Fabergè

STORIE DAL MONDO

Per la chiesa ortodossa la Pasqua è la festa più importante del calendario e le uova sono da sempre al centro della simbologia che la rappresenta. Proprio in Russia, infatti, la tradizione dell’uovo decorato ha raggiunto la sua massima espressione, grazie alla creatività dell’orafo Peter Carl Fabergé.

Il grande gioielliere russo, discendente da una famiglia francese di origine ugonotta, dopo aver viaggiato in tutta Europa per conoscere i segreti dei mestiere, assunse intorno al 1870 a San Pietroburgo la guida dell’azienda orafa dei padre Gustave. Nel 1885 fu nominato fornitore della corte imperiale.

Carl Fabergè

Per questo nuovo incarico, insieme alla produzione di gioielli, il giovane Fabergé creò raffinati objets d’art, tra cui le celeberrime uova cerimoniali.

Le uova erano ispirate alle vicende della casa imperiale e destinate ad arricchire la Pasqua degli zar e dei loro familiari.

La tradizione, inaugurata con Alessandro III, proseguì con Nicola II, che richiese a Fabergé due uova l’anno, uno per la regina madre e uno per la moglie, la zarina Alessandra Fiodorovna. A poco a poco, il laboratorio divenne un piccolo impero, famoso a livello internazionale, la cui fine sarà sancita, come per i Romanov, dalla rivoluzione bolscevica.

Da sempre gli storici dell’arte hanno discusso sul lavoro di Fabergé, domandandosi se il maestro russo dovesse essere riconosciuto come un vero artista o se non fosse più corretto parlate di un artigiano.

Fabergé amava definirsi un “artista gioielliere” e in ciò è racchiusa la sua filosofia, mirabile sintesi dì abilità artigianale e creazione artistica.

Le sue scelte fatto dì forme e di disegni erano guidate più dal giudizio estetico che da considerazioni dì ordine strettamente economico‑commerciale.

Carl Fabergè

Infatti, in un’intervista pubblicata nel 1914 su una rivista russa, lo stesso Fabergé affermava:
“… Gli oggetti preziosi hanno per me poco interesse se il loro valore deriva principalmente dalla profusione di diamanti e perle.”

Tutta la produzione di Fabergé è orientata verso oggetti il cui principale pregio consiste nella bellezza dei disegno, dove le pietre e i materiali preziosi si adattano alla ricerca della forma, alla qualità della lavorazione, al senso della misura, alla calibrata eleganza delle proporzioni e alla perfezione dell’esecuzione. 

In questo contesto cambia anche l’impiego dei materiali. Le pietre preziose sono unite a minerali e metalli meno nobili: la giada, la nefrite, il calcedonio, l’ossidiana, l’amianto, il cristallo di rocca e il quarzo fumé.

Carle Fabergè
Uovo dei mughetti
La sorpresa era una componente essenziale di questi preziosi oggetti.

L’ideazione era circondata dalla massima segretezza, tanto che nemmeno lo zar era messo a conoscenza dei progetto. Molte sorprese riguardavano la famiglia imperiale, come l’Uovo dei Mughetti, splendido esempio di stile liberty, che contiene le miniature dello zar e delle granduchesse Olga e Tatiana. Sullo sfondo in smalto rosa fioriscono delicati steli di mughetti, su cui sono incastonati perle e diamanti tagliati a rosetta.

L’estrema accuratezza dei lavori di Fabergé è qui evidenziata dall’uso di perle di diversa grandezza, quasi a sottolineare la varietà naturale dei fiori: dal bocciolo alla piena fioritura

Carl Fabergè
Uovo dell’Incoronazione

L’esemplare più famoso fra le uova commemorative è l’Uovo dell’incoronazione, donato nel 1897 da Nicola Il all’imperatrice Alessandra.

Il guscio in smalto giallo, colore dell’abito dell’incoronazione, è inciso con motivi a raggi solari, arricchito da rami d’alloro e aquile imperiali in smalto nero e brillanti. La sorpresa nascosta all’interno è la perfetta riproduzione della carrozza usata il giorno della cerimonia. Nessun particolare è stato trascurato: dal colore della tappezzeria al meccanismo che fa scendere gli scalini quando si aprono gli sportelli.

Carl Fabergè
Ancora oggi questi splendidi gioielli sono ammirati e ricercati dai collezionisti di tutto il mondo.

Le loro quotazioni d’asta raggiungono cifre astronomiche. Una di queste preziose uova, battuta da Christie’s, ha toccato la quotazione record di 9,6 milioni di dollari, Cifra di gran lunga superiore a quella versata per l’acquisto dell’intera collezione dell’editore Malcom Forbes, venduta per quasi sei milioni di dollari!

358 pensiero su “LE OPERE SENZA TEMPO DI CARL FABERGE’ NELLA RUSSIA DEGLI ZAR”
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