Faraone Menes
Faraone Menes

Tutte le fonti di storiografia Egizia affermano all’unanimità che Menes fu il primo faraone. Una virtuale conferma di ciò è fornita dalla famosa Pietra di Palermo. Il registro superiore non dà che i nomi, sotto una forma alquanto fantasiosa, di sovrani sui quali l’analista non è evidentemente in grado di fornire altre informazioni.

Il secondo registro doveva iniziare certamente con Menes, ma la parte che lo riguarda è andata persa.

Per analogia con gli altri due re della I dinastia, ricordati nel grande frammento de il Cairo, si può ritenere con quasi assoluta certezza che vi si trovassero sia il suo nome di Horo che il nome proprio, presumibilmente accompagnato da quello della madre.

Sotto l’intestazione gli spazi riservati alla datazione ricordavano, anno per anno, gli avvenimenti considerati più importanti del suo regno.

E’ probabile che il compilatore, trattandosi di un’epoca tanto remota, abbia attinto in parte alla propria immaginazione.

Sarebbe interessante sapere se era ricordata in modo esplicito l’unificazione dei Due Paesi che era per gli Egizi un evento memorabile.

Un’allusione a questo avvenimento si trova nell’espressione Unione dell’Alto e Basso Egitto. Il giro delle mura che contrassegna il primo anno di regno di ogni sovrano nella Pietra di Palermo e in altri documenti, e che evidentemente si riferisce alla cerimonia con la quale si legittimava la discendenza del sovrano dal fondatore della dinastia.

Le mura nominate dovrebbero essere quelle di Menfi la cui fondazione è attribuita a Menes da Erodoto e, con qualche confusione, anche da Diodoro Siculo.

La Stele di Rosetta, a proposito di Menfi, parla dei riti abitualmente compiuti dal re nell’assumere il suo alto compito.

Lo spostamento della residenza regale da un’ignota località del Sud a questa città al vertice del delta, deve perciò esser considerato una conseguenza diretta dell’instaurazione del duplice reame.

Gli altri atti importanti attribuiti a Menes da Erodoto riguardano la creazione di un argine destinato a proteggere Menfi dalle inondazioni del Nilo e la costruzione del tempio di Ptah a sud dei bastioni della città. Quest’ultimo avvenimento riceve un’implicita conferma da una tavoletta della XIX Dinastia che nomina il Ptah di Menes.

Data la scarsità di reperti storici e l’imperfetta conoscenza dei geroglifici del periodo, l’identificazione di un re della I dinastia non è mai precisa e certa. Ecco allora che Menes è da alcuni studiosi identificato con Narmer, mentre secondo altri lui e Aha sarebbero la stessa persona.

Secondo alcuni infine Narmer, Menes e Aha sarebbero state tre persone distinte.

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