MONGOLIA

Gengis Khan

Gengis Khan, il condottiero un tempo quasi sconosciuto, aveva saputo forgiare da un ammasso di tribù turbolente una nazione

Un’immensa folla di nomadi si riunì, nel 1206, per un kuriltai (consiglio generale), sulle rive del fiume Onon, in Mongolia, nel cuore di una sterminata steppa che si estendeva dalla Muraglia Cinese agli Urali e all’altopiano iranico.

Erano giunti fin li per rendere omaggio a Temucin, il condottiero un tempo quasi sconosciuto che aveva saputo forgiare da un ammasso di tribù turbolente una nazione.

Riuniti in gruppi, ognuno sotto il proprio capo, gioirono all’annuncio che Temucin stava per avere un nuovo titolo.

D’ora in poi sarebbe stato chiamato Gengis Khan, che tradotto dal mongolo significa “sovrano universale”.

A sua volta, Gengis Khan usò per primo il termine “Mongolo” per definire tutti i popoli dell’Asia centrale, senza tener conto delle antiche identità tribali.

Il nome di Gengis Khan è ricordato come quello di un terribile condottiero che distruggeva imperi e massacrava le popolazioni.

Gengis Khan

Alla sua morte nel 1227, Gengis Khan aveva creato un impero che si estendeva dal Mar Caspio all’odierna Pechino.

Nei cinquant’anni anni seguenti i suoi discendenti, sulla base di un’invincibile combinazione di superba cavalleria, di disciplina e di terrore, estesero le frontiere dell’impero mongolo fino all’Ungheria e alla Polonia a ovest e fino all’odierno Vietnam a sudest.

Durante i primi anni, le popolazioni mongole dell’Asia centrale erano divise su un vastissimo territorio, tenute facilmente a bada dalle popolazioni sedentarie ben organizzate sotto grandi re, come la dinastia Chin della Cina settentrionale.

La Cina esercitava da lontano il suo controllo sulle popolazioni nomadi a nord e a ovest della Grande Muraglia, servendosi del giovane Temucin.

Quando iniziò la conquista degli Stati confinanti, i Mongoli erano inferiori alle popolazioni che assoggettavano sia per cultura sia per tecnologia che per capacità amministrative. Ma la carenza di conoscenze e di numero era ampiamente sopperita dall’estrema mobilità e rapidità sorprendente dei loro cavalieri.

Gengis Khan

Il Gran Khan credeva di essere investito della sacra missione di conquistare il mondo intero, in nome dell’Eterno Paradiso Blu. Ma ciò che offriva ai suoi seguaci era la prospettiva del bottino.

Il servizio militare, sebbene obbligatorio per tutti i maschi, dai 14 ai 60 anni, non era senza ricompense.

“Le future generazioni della nostra razza “promise Gengis Khan “indosseranno vestiti ricamati d’oro, mangeranno cibi grassi e appetitosi, cavalcheranno stupendi cavalli, e terranno fra le braccia belle donne”.

Al momento della sua morte, avvenuta nel 1227, egli aveva largamente mantenuto le sue promesse.

Sotto suo figlio e successore Ogoday Khan, furono annesse al già vasto impero asiatico la Russia, la Persia, l’Armenia e il Tibet. Il nipote di Gengis Khan, Kublai Khan, aggiunse ulteriori territori al suo dominio durante il suo regno, compresa la parte meridionale della Cina.

Ma Kublai Khan prese le parole di suo nonno troppo alla lettera.

Voltando le spalle alla semplicità e alle antiche tradizioni di vita mongola, scelse gli splendori degli imperatori cinesi di cui i Mongoli avevano preso il posto.

Il suo regno segnò non solo la fine dell’espansione mongola. ma anche quella dello stesso regno mongolo come organismo unitario.

Mongolia

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI:

La battaglia del Kalka
L’avanguardia mongola di Gengis Khan, nonostante l’inferiorità numerica, affronta le forze di alcuni principi russi consegnando ai mongoli un’importante vittoria che spianerà la strada per l’invasione dell’Europa.

Tamerlano
Se dobbiamo credere a quanto raccontavano i suoi nemici il signore della guerra tartara, fu il conquistatore più sanguinario di tutti i tempi.

151 pensiero su “GENGIS KHAN”
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