EX – JUGOSLAVIA

Impero Asburgico - Ex Jugoslavia
Mentre questi tumultuosi avvenimenti erano in corso, anche l’impero asburgico conosceva un profondo travaglio.

Con la disfatta dei Turchi esso aveva in qualche maniera esaurito la sua funzione storica di baluardo dell’Europa cristiana e si trovava in piena crisi.

Dalle guerre napoleoniche all’inizio dell’800, l’impero uscì infatti indebolito e trasformato. Paradossalmente proprio dalla nuova cultura che si era affermata nel mondo tedesco, come reazione alle conquiste francesi.

Era la cultura del Romanticismo, che sottolineava i valori della nazione, della lingua, dell’autonomia etnica.

Valori che venivano insegnati a Vienna da uomini come August Schlegel ai propri studenti tedeschi, ma non solo. Anche a quelli boemi, ungheresi, slovacchi, sloveni e croati.

Nel giro di poche anni la cultura romantica trionfò dappertutto, portando con sè un’ impetuosa volontà di affermazione nazionale e culturale.

Tra i popoli dell’impero sorsero poeti, scrittori, filologi che crearono sulla base della scarsa eredità intellettuale in loro possesso, nuove letterature. Posero le basi di nuove culture, suscitando nel contempo la coscienza nazionale, ma anche le conflittualità fra i gruppi etnici più forti e quelli che lo erano meno.

Gli Asburgo non furono in grado di affrontare questa nuova e improvvisa sfida che si poneva loro di fronte. Invece di mediare fra i diversi popoli che si affacciarono alla ribalta storica, cercarono di soffocare il loro sviluppo.

Il primo campanello d’allarme suonò nel 1848 quando la monarchia fu sconvolta da una serie di movimenti rivoluzionari che quasi ne segnarono la fine.

In quel momento essa fu salvata dai croati, timorosi delle aspirazioni egemoniche degli ungheresi, e dai russi, timorosi della rivoluzione.

I croati pagarono cara la loro decisione di soccorrere, sebbene in difesa delle proprie autonomie, la casa d’Asburgo. Vennero bollati da Marx ed Engels come il popolo antilibertario per eccellenza, e portarono questo marchio nella coscienza dell’intellighenzia europea per molto tempo,

Né gli Asburgo serbarono la loro gratitudine per il servizio prestato.

Una volta soffocata la rivoluzione, essi li trattarono al pari degli ungheresi, imponendo agli uni e agli altri una dura dittatura. Quando poi, dopo le sconfitte in Italia e contro i tedeschi, gli Asburgo furono costretti, nel 1867, a scendere a patti con gli ungheresi, abbandonarono i croati alla loro mercé.

L’impero rimase unito nella persona del sovrano, ma venne diviso in due parti, l’Austria e l’Ungheria, con due popoli dominanti: in Austria i tedeschi e in Ungheria i magiari.

Naturalmente gli sloveni, governati da Vienna, e i croati governati, in gran parte, da Budapest, non si rassegnarono alla loro sorte.

Dalla comune lotta contro la dominazione straniera nacque anche l’idea di una alleanza che fu alla base del progetto jugoslavo. Riunire cioè tutti gli slavi meridionali, soggetti agli Asburgo, in un’unica entità statale, trasformando la duplice monarchia in triplice.

Accanto a questo pensiero d’integrazione da tempo ne veniva formulato a Belgrado uno parallelo ma diverso.

Esso nasceva dalla tesi che il regno serbo avrebbe dovuto svolgere lo stesso ruolo che il Piemonte aveva avuto nell’ unificazione d’Italia.

Avrebbe dovuto cioè unire tutte le terre serbe o considerate tali: la Macedonia, il Kosovo, la Vojvodina, la Croazia e la Dalmazia” (Ibidem, p. 10-11).

  • Dal VI secolo ai turchi
  • Sloveni e croati
  • Impero asburgico
  • La politica di Bismark
  • La prima guerra mondiale
  • Serbi, croati e sloveni
  • Il regno di Jugoslavia
  • La seconda guerra mondiale
  • La resistenza Cetnica
  • La resistenza di Tito
  • La Jugoslavia con Tito
  • La repubblica Federale
  • L’ascesa del nazionalismo
  • La crisi jugoslava
  • Le vicende nella Serbia
  • Autonomia Slovena
  • La Croazia
  • Bosnia e Herzegovina
  • La guerra in Bosnia
  • Gli accordi di Dayton
  • La crisi del Kosovo
  • Il crollo di Milosevic
  • Sviluppi recenti
  • Cronologia
  • Per sapere qualcosa di più


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