Karnak: culto di Osiride

Nell’antico Egitto, Osiride fu uno degli dei più amati, tanto da rivaleggiare a Karnak con il potente Amon-Ra.

Questo luogo sacro ricco di santuari, obelischi e piloni, edificato per la gloria della triade tebana: Amon – Mut _Khonsu dall’inizio del Medio Regno sino all’epoca romana, ha resistito a duemila anni di saccheggi e ancor oggi mostra tutta la sua maestosità agli occhi stupefatti dei visitatori.

Attiguo al santuario di Khonsu, situato sull’angolo occidentale della cinta muraria di Karnak, si trova una piccola costruzione dedicata alla dea Opet (una forma tebana di Nut), la Madre Divina.

La tradizione vuole che, qui ella mettesse al mondo Osiride e che ogni anno il dio rinascesse dal ventre di sua madre.

Purtroppo, la parte anteriore del santuario è distrutta, ma dopo aver attraversato il vestibolo, si scoprono una decina di piccole camere di culto, una cappella osiriaca (Sancta sancoturm) e delle cripte.

A cosa servivano? Erano forse destinati a riti iniziatici?

La disposizione ricorda, in proporzioni ridotte, il tempio d Busiris, dove avveniva l’iniziazione alla dea Maat.

A Busiris, dopo aver raggiunto il Santa Santorum, si seguiva un passaggio sotterraneo che portava a una cripta osiriaca “bordata di persee” una pianta che molti testi mettono in costante rapporto con il culto di Osiride:

“Osiride è colui che risiede nel cuore della persea a Tebe”.

Tebe, come Abido e Busiris, aveva le persee intorno ad un Santo Sepolcro, dove si venerava la preziosa reliquia citata da iscrizioni di epoca tarda: “Una gamba del grande dio”.

Sia Abido sia Busiris destinavano all’iniziazione le sale sotterranee, quindi perche non pensare che anche dentro la cinta di Karnak si svolgesse un rito iniziatico ?

Il modesto tempio di Opet avrebbe potuto accogliere i numerosi figuranti che un simile rito richiedeva?

Le scoperte archeologiche hanno dimostrato che la fama di Osiride subì un improvviso frazionamento quando prese piede nell’area tebana, tanto che furono costruiti piccoli santuari o semplici cappelle in luoghi scartati dagli dei che lo avevano preceduto.

Del culto osiriaco a Karnak restano solo due cappelle e due templi in cattivo stato di conservazione.

Probabilmente il santuario di Opet non fu l’unico al centro del culto osiriaco.

Certamente le sue mura videro la nascita del “Santo Bambino che risplende a Tebe”, ma vista l’esiguità dell’edificio è difficile immaginare che solo in questo luogo si svolgessero feste popolari o riti iniziatici.

Il tempietto serviva, forse, da luogo di sosta durante le lunghe processioni dirette alla Tomba di Osiride.

Questo ci porta a un altro interrogativo.

Dove si trova il Santo Sepolcro?

Un papiro conservato nel museo del Louvre, che descrive con precisione i testi rituali recitati nel lungo cammino di Osiride sul territorio di Amon-Ra, rivela che già nel Nuovo Regno, le feste di Osiride erano celebrate dentro la cinta di Karnak.

Qual era il percorso di queste solenni cerimonie?

Conoscerne il tragitto potrebbe portare alla scoperta dell’ubicazione del Sepolcro tebano.

“Uscita in processione dalla dimora di Osiride”:
Uscire in processione fino alla tomba in prossimità della dimora di Iside e trainare “verso Sud”, fino al tempio di Opet, la grande libagione all’entrata del santuario di Osiride.

Così la processione, dopo aver sostato sul luogo della Tomba Santa, proseguiva il cammino verso Sud, verso il tempio di Opet, ove una recente traduzione voleva fosse nato Osiride.

La struttura di Karnak mostra che il Sepolcro doveva essere edificato a Nord del santuario di Opet, cioè sull’ampio terrapieno della cinta di Amon-Ra, ma di questo luogo della fede purtroppo non rimane nulla.

Probabilmente non sarà mai trovata la tomba di Osiride tebano, tuttavia possiamo giungere a due conclusioni:

che il “Corpo del dio Salvatore” riposava nella parte settentrionale di Karnak all’ombra delle persee, e che il tempietto della dea Opet sia stato il principale teatro di riti iniziatici.

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