DINASTIE FARAONI

Sesostri II

Figlio di Amenemhat II, Sesostri II, regnò sull’Egitto per una decina d’anni. Diede un notevole contributo al compimento dell’opera di bonifica ordinando la costruzione di uno sbarramento per l’acqua di Bahr-Yussuf innalzando una diga al El Lahun. La diga diventò a poco a poco una meta obbligata per i sovrani che volevano far visita alla zona delle paludi.

Nel giro di breve tempo fu costruito anche un opet reale per ospitare i sovrani durante le loro visite. Sesostri II decise di edificare il proprio presso “la bocca del coccodrillo” il suo complesso funerario.

La piramide di Sesostri II fu innalzata intorno ad uno sperone di roccia utilizzando mattoni crudi e un rivestimento di lastre di calcare. L’aspetto del monumento differisce da quello della IV dinastia, la sua forma ,infatti, appare schiacciata e le dimensioni sono inferiori rispetto ai colossi di Giza.

Accanto a quest’opera sorse il complesso per la vita ultraterrena del re, costituito da un tempio funerario, da un sacrario e da un tempio a valle oltre alle tombe reali della regina Atumuneferu e di altre nobildonne. Tra queste si trova la tomba di una principessa inumata con splendidi gioielli, veri capolavori dell’oreficeria egizia. Diademi, fili d’oro, pietre dure e collane di perle riuscirono a sopravvivere alle razzie dei predatori.

Quello dei saccheggi era, infatti, un problema che riguardava da vicino i faraoni che cercarono in tutti i modi di proteggere dai ladri le proprie sepolture. I violatori di tombe sapevano che l’accesso principale alla piramide era situato sul lato settentrionale, con il corridoio d’ingresso orientato verso le stelle circumpolari. Sesostri II decise di spostare l’ingresso della sua tomba per confondere i malintenzionati.

I sudditi realizzarono un pozzo a sud della piramide che scendeva fino a un passaggio segreto, scavato a dodici metri di profondità, il quale immetteva alla camera funeraria del re rivestita in granito. 

Gli operai addetti ai lavori di costruzione del complesso funerario di Sesostri II furono sistemati in un villaggio adiacente chiamato Hotep senurset, fu Petrie che, equivocando con il nome di Lahun, lo chiamò poi Kahum.

Sesostri II nel corso del suo breve regno riuscì a mantenere la pace nel Paese e inviò spedizioni pacifiche nei deserti e in Sinai. Alla sua morte avvenuta nel 1878 a.C., il trono passò al figlio Sesostri III, il faraone più famoso del Medio Regno.

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