SIMBOLOGIA

Specchio

Anticamente si credeva nella corrispondenza magica tra una cosa e la sua copia.

Si pensava che gli specchi trattenessero l’anima o l’energia vitale di colui che vi si rifletteva. Per questo motivo un’usanza popolare vuole che alla morte di una persona si coprano gli specchi, altrimenti la sua anima rimarrà imprigionata incapace di passare nell’aldilà.

Dato che demoni e creature soprannaturali non possono riflettersi, gli specchi riescono a svelare la loro vera natura. Le incarnazioni diaboliche, ad esempio il basilisco, non possono tollerare la propria immagine e sono destinate a morire non appena la vedono riflessa.

Possiamo quindi ritenere gli specchi come degli amuleti che ci proteggono dagli esseri e dalle forze sataniche.

In origine ciò valeva solo per le superfici d’acqua che venivano usate anche come strumento di profezia, in quanto dischiudevano una sorta di mondo alla rovescia.

Nell’antichità erano d’uso comune specchi fatti di bronzo e d’argento, In Messico erano in vetro lucido e vulcanico, infatti il nome del dio azteco Tezcatlipoca significa “specchio fumante”. E’ molto probabile che anche in questo contesto lo specchio avesse un significato divinatorio, per esempio nel corso di pratiche che dovevano provocare visioni.

Nella tradizione scintoista giapponese lo specchio ha un valore particolare essendo l’attributo della dea del Sole, Amaterasu.

Nell’iconografia occidentale la simbologia attribuisce allo specchio un ruolo contraddittorio:

da un lato è tenuto in mano dalle sirene che conducono gli uomini alla perdizione ed è quindi attributo di lussuria, dall’altro è però l’esempio della virtù che porta alla conoscenza di se stessi.

Secondo la tradizione popolare uno specchio luminoso simboleggia la felicità coniugale, uno specchio rotto invece la separazione o una sciagura che durerà sette anni.

Segni di sventura o di morte sono anche gli specchi scuri che non riflettono, per esempio in sogno.

Le persone che per molto tempo si guardano allo specchio, si sentono affascinate da qualcosa che le paralizza. Non tutti sopportano di osservare la propria immagine riflessa, Narciso, per esempio, si smarrì contemplando la propria immagine riflessa nell’acqua. Altri ritornano in se soltanto dopo una completa trasmigrazione, quando hanno recuperato la loro effettiva esistenza.

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