Nilometro
Nilometro Elefantina

Il nilometro era un pozzo a pareti graduate, sovente scavato presso i templi, in corrispondenza con la falda sotterranea del Nilo.

Il nilometro più conosciuto lo possiamo osservare a Elefantina (Assuan) cui si accede attraverso una scala a chiocciola di oltre novanta gradini che scende verso il fiume e ha le pareti segnate da indicazioni di livello del fiume.

Un altro famoso nilometro è quello dell’isola di Roda al centro de Il Cairo.

Qual era lo scopo del nilometro?

Era quello di prevedere sin dall’inizio quale sarebbe stata la portata finale della piena, basandosi sulla misurazione consentita dalle diverse graduazioni di livello tracciate sulle pareti, così da poter più facilmente far fronte ai danni provocati da una piena troppo forte o troppo debole.

Sin dall’epoca protostorica i nilometri furono impiegati per l’applicazione delle tasse:
annata buona = tasse alte
annata cattiva = nessuna tassa.

Questo strumento si rivelò così efficace tanto da rimanere in uso sino al ventesimo secolo, quando il governo egiziano, aiutato dall’Unione Sovietica e grazie agli introiti derivanti dal Canale di Suez, costruì la Diga di Assuan, nel 1970, che mitigò in modo decisivo i livelli del fiume Nilo.

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI
Dio-Sobek

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