La teologia Eliopolitana è antichissima, precedente all’unificazione dell’Egitto e quindi alla I Dinastia.
Secondo questa teologia l’Universo era immerso nel caos liquido, le acque dell’oceano primordiale.
Fu da queste massa liquida (Nun) che Atum sorgendo illuminò l’oceano creando la prima terra ferma, la “Collina primordiale” che divenne il centro attorno al quale la terra si solidificò. Era un luogo carico di energia vitale e sempre vi fu un rapporto tra la divinità e la Collina primordiale, ogni tempio si doveva identificare con essa così come doveva essere imitata dal trono del sovrano.
Ad Eliopoli vi era un luogo chiamato la collina di sabbia, che faceva parte del tempio del sole, e che veniva identificata con la Collina primordiale, vi era inoltre il primo pezzo di sostanza solida creato da Atum.
Questa sostanza era la pietra Benben, formata da una goccia del seme di Atum, nata dalla masturbazione o da uno sputo del dio e caduta nelle acque primordiali.
Nei Testi delle Piramidi, la pietra Benben ha forma conica, in seguito viene stilizzata per il suo impiego in architettura e diventa una piccola piramide. Da qui il nome “piramidion”, che ricoperta da una foglia d’oro, era fissata sulla cima degli obelischi.
Un Testo delle Piramidi ci descrive questi primi avvenimenti:
”Atum-Khepri, tu eri alto come la collina,
tu risplendevi come Benben
nel tempio Benben di Eliopoli.
Tu sputerai Shu,
tu vomiti Tefnet,
tu metti le tue braccia attorno ad essi con tuo ka,
così il tuo ka fu in essi.”
Atum, il demiurgo, generò la prima coppia di divinità. Shu e ,Tefnet da cui nacquero Geb e Nut, che a loro volta diedero vita ad Osiride, Iside, Seth e Nefthi.
In principio Geb e Nut erano strettamente uniti in totale abbraccio, ma vennero separati da Shu. Spesso sui sarcofagi tebani della XX dinastia si trova la raffigurazione di questo episodio. L’unione di un dio demiurgo e di quattro coppie di divinità, formò la Grande Enneade di Eliopoli, altre divinità importanti come Anubi, Horus Maat e Thot andarono a formare una “piccola Enneade”.
L’ideologia eliopolitana aveva una duplice finalità.
Sul piano spirituale cercava con la logica di risolvere la confusa materia della creazione, mentre su quello pratico, con la supremazia del culto solare, i sacerdoti potevano giustificare la loro supremazia.
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