Calendar ancient egypt

With no doubt the Egyptians have been the first to invent a solar and rational calendar.

Their year was made of 365 days and divided in 12 months of 30 days each, to which there were added, at the end of the yearly cycle, 5 supplementary days or “epagomeni”. The months were divided in three groups of four months that coincided with the three seasons.
The flood season akhet
The germination season pert
The heat season shem

Only in the low epoch a name was given to each month:

Thot, Paophi, Athyr, Choiak for the flood season;
Tybi, Meshir, Phmenoth, Pharmuthi for the germination season
Pachons, Payni, Epiphi, Mesori for the third season, the summer.

So, to appoint a certain date, they gave the year of the reign, the month of the season and the day.

For example: IX year of Zoserkare Amenhotep (I), third month of heat (Epiphi), 9th day, is according to Eber’s medical papyrus, the day of the eliaca rise of Sothis (Sepet), which is the star Sirio.

Actually the Egyptian year began the day when Sirio comes out of the horizon at dawn. This phenomenon, called the “eliaca rise of Sothis” corresponds approximately with the flood of the Nile, which was very important for the economy of these people of farmers, because it depended on the floods. This date in fact (the 19th of July in the giuliano calendar or the 15th of June of our calendar, at the latitude of Memphis) marked the beginning of the year.

As the Egyptian year had only 365 days, against the 365 days and 6 hours of the cycle of the sun and of Sirio, the conventional beginning of the year was moved ahead of a day every 4 years.

So, 1461 years were necessary, so the cosmic and official year coincided again.
Of course the Egyptians had noticed this displacement that brought the summer marked on the calendar in the middle of winter and so for this reason they called the official year “vague year”.

Anyway, for the work in the fields, the farmers always referred only to the natural cycle of the seasons.

The cycles of 1461 days, called “sotiaci periods” have helped the specialists in the research of the precise date of the introduction of the calendar. We know for sure that the eliaca rise of Sothis coincided with the first day of the official calendar in 139 AC. A simple calculation proves that this coincidence had already happened in 1322 BC (beginning of the XIX dynasty), in 2783 BC (the end of the tinita period and the beginning of the Ancient Reign) and in 4244 BC. The first date is too far, regarding the second, the Texts in the Pyramids in Saqqara let us suppose that in 2783 BC, the calendar had already been made.

The qualified scientists have so accepted the date of 4244 BC, that, according to some of them, should be the first historical certain date.

The invention of the calendar is attributed to the priests in Eliopoli who, according to the experts, have made it in the pre-dynastic period, in an epoch when the city was the capital of the unified reign.

The German mathematician Naugebauer has established the unacceptability of this date.

The carbon 14 analysis in fact, has showed that actually it takes us back to the Neolithic of Fayyum and it’s not possible to admit the invention of the calendar at that time. So, if there was an eliopolitan domination in the medium predynastic period, we have to lower of a millennium the presumed date of the introduction of the calendar, definitely excluding the 4244 BC.

62 pensiero su “CALENDAR”
  1. how to calculate closing balance example, how to calculate closing balance formula, how to calculate closing balance in a cash flow forecast.

  2. how much essential oil to add to castile soap, how much essential oil to add to coconut oil, how much essential oil to add to cold process soap.

  3. how to make a google account without phone verification, how to make a google account without your phone number, how to make a google account your default account.

  4. Excellent blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol|

  5. It’s actually a nice and helpful piece of info. I’m satisfied that you just shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.|

  6. Fantastic goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just too magnificent. I really like what you’ve acquired here, really like what you’re stating and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it smart. I cant wait to read much more from you. This is really a tremendous site.|

  7. We’re a bunch of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our community. Your site offered us with valuable info to work on. You’ve done an impressive task and our entire group shall be grateful to you.|

  8. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was wondering what all is required to get set up? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny? I’m not very internet savvy so I’m not 100 positive. Any recommendations or advice would be greatly appreciated. Appreciate it|

  9. Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with the pictures on this blog loading? I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog. Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.|

  10. I blog quite often and I seriously thank you for your content. Your article has really peaked my interest. I will bookmark your site and keep checking for new details about once a week. I subscribed to your Feed as well.|

  11. Pretty portion of content. I simply stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact loved account your blog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing in your feeds and even I success you get right of entry to consistently quickly.|

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *