SECONDA GUERRA MONDIALE

Fosse ardeatine

I G.AP. (Gruppo dell’Azione patriottica del Comitato di liberazione nazionale) osservarono per parecchi giorni una colonna della polizia tedesca che passava regolarmente lungo Via Rasella a Roma.

Era stato perciò approntato un piano per attaccarli.

Il 23 marzo 1944 una cassa d’acciaio caricata con dodici chili d’esplosivo fu messa sul carro di uno spazzino. Intorno furono sistemati altri sei chili d’esplosivo. Il carretto fu collocato nel centro della strada, lungo la strada dove doveva passare la colonna della polizia tedesca per giungere a Via Rasella.

Quando i tedeschi si furono inoltrati lungo la strada, un compagno si tolse il cappello. Questo era il segnale.

Un altro, travestito da spazzino, accese il fuso e mise il cappello sul carretto per segnalare che l’esplosione sarebbe avvenuta in un minuto e che gli altri compagni si potevano preparare.

L’esplosione avvenne nel momento in cui la colonna tedesca si trovava proprio di fronte al carretto, i nazisti della retroguardia si ritrovarono verso la parte più bassa della strada e furono attaccati da bombe a mano.

Subito dopo arrivarono sulla scena alti ufficiali con soldati della “Nembo”, “Barbarigo”, battaglioni “Roma o Morte” soldati della squadra del Luogotenente Kock, e della milizia, agenti di P.S. , della Reale Guardia di Finanza e della PAI.

Vi erano trentadue morti tedeschi adagiati in fila da un lato della strada e due morti italiani, un uomo e un bambino di circa dieci o dodici anni.

II mattino successivo Kappler ebbe un colloquio con il Commissario di P.S. Alianello, in cui lo pregava di chiedere, con la massima urgenza, al vice capo della polizia Cerruti se la polizia italiana era in grado di fornire una lista di cinquanta persone. Cerruti poco dopo gli comunicava che avrebbe mandato da lui il Questore Caruso perchè prendesse accordi in merito. A conclusione di questo colloquio si stabilì che il Questore avrebbe fatto pervenire l’elenco a Kappler.

Nell’elenco compilato dal Kappler con l’aiuto dei suoi collaboratori numerosi erano i detenuti per reati comuni e gli ebrei arrestati per motivi razziali. Fra gli altri poi una persona assolta dal Tribunale Militare tedesco e due ragazzi di quindici anni uno arrestato perchè ebreo. A loro dovevano aggiungersi i nomi di cinquanta persone che gli sarebbero stati forniti dal Questore Caruso scelti fra i detenuti che questi aveva a sua disposizione.

Complessivamente, quindi, si raggiunse il numero di trecentoventi persone, pari al decuplo dei militari tedeschi che fino a quel momento erano deceduti.

Il Gen. Maeltezer diede ordinò a Kappler di provvedere all’esecuzione. Questi si recò nel suo ufficio in Via Tasso, chiamò a rapporto gli ufficiali dipendenti e li informò che tra qualche ora ci sarebbe stata la fucilazione di trecento persone in conseguenza dell’attentato di Via Rasella.

Al termine della riunione Kappler impartì l’ordine che tutti gli uomini del suo comando di nazionalità tedesca dovessero partecipare all’esecuzione, Contemporaneamente ordinava al Cap. Schultz di dirigere l’esecuzione dandogli disposizioni particolari in merito. Per la ristrettezza del tempo, si sarebbe dovuto sparare un solo colpo al cervelletto di ogni vittima e a distanza ravvicinata per rendere sicuro questo colpo, ma senza toccare la nuca con la bocca dell’arma.

Cinque militari tedeschi presero in consegna cinque vittime facendole entrare nella cava che era debolmente illuminata da torce accompagnandoli fino in fondo, facendole svoltare in un’altra cava che si apriva orizzontalmente.

Qui le vittime erano costrette ad inginocchiarsi e, quindi, ciascun militare sparava contro la vittima che aveva in consegna.

Altre cinque vittime furono portate nello stesso posto e fucilate con le stesse modalità un po’ più indietro delle prime cinque. Dopo che caddero, alcuni soldati trasportarono i cadaveri verso il fondo delle caverne dove si trovavano già i cadaveri delle prime. II tetro spettacolo dei cadaveri, si presentava alla vista delle vittime, quando queste entravano nella cava e s’inginocchiavano per essere fucilate.

Kappler, dopo circa mezz’ora dall’inizio dell’esecuzione e dopo aver partecipato ad una fucilazione, si allontanò recandosi agli uffici in Via Tasso. Espletò alcune pratiche e ritornando alle cave Ardeatine, partecipò ad altre fucilazioni.

Alle 19 circa era tutto finito.

Subito dopo furono fatte brillare delle mine, chiudendo in questo modo quella parte della cava nella quale i cadaveri ammucchiati fino all’altezza di un metro circa, occupavano un breve spazio.

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