STORIA DELL’ANTICO EGITTO

Arcieri nubiani
Arcieri nubani

La Nubia fu il punto cardine per i commerci e per gli scambi culturali tra il mondo africano e quello egizio. L’oro era una delle grandi ricchezze del paese, insieme al bestiame, all’avorio, all’ebano, alla gomma, ai cereali, all’incenso e agli animali esotici.

Per gli egizi la Nubia iniziava ad Elfantina, il cui nomos, ta Satet, fu annesso all’Egitto dalla prima dinastia.

In epoca tarda anche la zona settentrionale che si estendeva da Syene a Tacompo fu annessa all’Egitto dal Faraone Djoser. Durante la VI Dinastia i principi delle tribù stanziate lungo il Nilo, pagavano al faraone tributi in legname, guerrieri e fornivano un corpo di polizia.

I Nubiani erano molto apprezzati come guerrieri e famosi come arcieri; come mercenari facevano parte dell’esercito egizio o dei corpi di polizia.

Nei testi dell’Antico Egitto il rapporto con i guerrieri nubiani rimane ambiguo: ricercati e temuti quando facevano parte dell’esercito, erano invece disprezzati quando erano nemici. Resta il fatto che i Nubiani di Kush, riuscirono a fermare l’esercito egizio al confine di Wawa.

Ma fu durante il Medio Regno che i faraoni ebbero una particolare attenzione nei riguardi della Nubia.

Costruirono uno dei più possenti sistemi difensivi del mondo antico: le “Fortezze Nubiane”, che si trovavano alla frontiera segnata dalla seconda cataratta del Nilo (oggi sommersa da lago Nasser) tra la Bassa Nubia (l’egizia Wawa)  e l’Alta Nubia (l’egizia Kush).

I faraoni della XII dinastia compirono l’annessione della Bassa Nubia (Wawa) creando fortezze, sottomettendo la popolazione. F una vera e propria colonizzazione commerciale per ottenere il monopolio delle merci. I forti non solo assicuravano il dominio su Wawa, fungevano anche da base per gli attacchi contro Kush e per i commerci con le altre popolazioni.

Sesostri II fece edificare una fortezza sulla nuova frontiera e vi dedicò un tempio al dio Khnum.

I Faraoni del Nuovo Regno fecero della Bassa Nubia e di Kush una colonia dotata di una propria struttura amministrativa e di un proprio governatore al quale era attribuito un grande potere. La Nubia si estese sino a Napata, città che in seguito divenne la capitale del regno e da cui proverrà la dinastia nubiana.

LE BIANCHE FORTEZZE

L’imponente sistema difensivo voluto da Sesotri III per delimitare il confine con la Nubia, era costituito da quattordici forti, fra cui quelli di Buhen,Mirgissa,Shelfak, Semna Sud, Semna Ovest e Kush.

Il forte situato sull’isola di Uronarti, in Alta Nubia, completava lo sbarramento.

Questi bastioni erano edificati con mattoni di fango e presentavano mura merlate e intonacate in bianco avorio; possedevano passaggi coperti, feritoie e potevano ospitare circa duecento uomini.
Tutte le fortezze situate intorno alla seconda cateratta sono state inghiottite dal lago Nasser, formatosi dopo la costruzione della diga di Assuan.

132 pensiero su “NUBIA”
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