Numerologia nell'antico Egitto

Nella cultura dell’ antico Egitto la numerazione si può considerare una fisica dei numeri, cioè la possibilità di chiarire la funzione dei numeri in modo razionale. Negli ultimi anni alcune teorie sono state formulate in campo teologico per spiegare il concetto numerico della divinità nel pensiero egizio.

Il Demiurgo Atum genera da solo Shu e Tefnut: uno diventa tre.
Il dualismo è la regola fondamentale per definire l’Universo:

uno, principio primordiale, è sia maschio che femmina perciò 1 è uguale a 2

In base a questi elementi fondamentali, i sacerdoti secondo le loro dottrine teologiche, elaborarono vasti sistemi di progressione numerica che partivano dall’unità in modo da poter esprimere per mezzo di un numero la realtà e la creazione al centro della quale si trova il Demiurgo.

Numeri simbolici egizi:

  • 1 vita terrena animata dalla presenza del Demiurgo, l’uno è legato all’uomo quale espressione del divino.
  • 2 Dualismo. L’uno indifferenziato è maschio e femmina, uno e due insieme.
  • 3 Rappresenta l’espressione della pluralità e della triade divina
  • 4 Legato alla materia riprodurrebbe l’universo creato quadripartito, cioè le quattro mura del tempio.
  • 5 L’ipotesi è che possa derivare da un antico nome della mano; l’ideogramma potrebbe anche indicare Geb, il quinto dio dell’ Enneade di Eliopoli.
  • 6 non ha ancora uno spiegazione certa
  • 7 E’ il numero magico attestato in tutte le antiche culture, ed è simbolo della creazione perpetua, della perfezione secondo la teologia Eliopolitana.

Nei Testi delle Piramidi il 7 ed il 14 sono numeri sacri.

Nella letteratura religiosa si ricordano i 7 ba e i 14 ka del dio Ra; i saluti a Ra erano fatti 4 volte, al suo ba 7 e al suo ka 14.

Gruppi di porte che hanno 7 oppure 21 guardiani, si trovano in vari capitoli del Libro dei Morti.

Nei Testi delle Piramidi si trovano:
  • i 7 abomini che non si devono commettere
  • I 7 urei
  • Le 7 vertebre cervicali,
  • i 7 Bes
  • le 7 gatte
  • le 7 giare di latte
  • i 7 falchi di Thoth
  • i 7 Khnum di Esna
  • le 7 frecce di Sekhmet, legate alle 7 Hathor e alle 7 nutrici.

Nel rituale dell’Apertura della bocca sono previste 7 operazione relative alle 7 aperture della testa con 7 strumenti rituali.

Il 7 esprime la vita, la facoltà di possederla, di riceverla e di donarla.

Secondo teorie più antiche il 7 è il risultato di due numeri eliopolitani:
il 4 di Ra (il tempio) e il 3 di Geb la triade divina.
Il 7 esprime il concetto di universalità cosmica che associa Ra a Geb

8 Il doppio di 4 esprime la struttura della materia.

9 E’ il plurale dei plurali (3×3), cioè l’infinito.

I multipli e i composti di 7 hanno un posto primario nel formulario numerico magico.
Secondo il papiro magico Harris, Amon- Ra ha 4 teste di ariete, 77 occhi e 77 orecchie.

Secondo altre teorie nell’Universo vi erano 77 forze positive del dio originale, che formavano la sostanza del primo mondo creato; tuttavia, secondo la regola del dualismo, esistevano anche 77 forze negative.

Il numero 77 esprime questo concetto e potrebbe corrispondere all’immagine circolare del mondo, ovvero del serpente con la coda in bocca.

Simbologia dei numeri

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