STORIA RELIGIONI – DOTTRINE – SETTE

Santeria

La Santeria nasce in Nigeria, patria degli Yoruba, un’etnia di circa quaranta milioni di persone. Con le deportazioni degli Yoruba, resi schiavi durante il XVII secolo, la Santeria raggiunse Cuba. Si diffuse poi nel resto dell’America centro meridionale dando vita in Brasile al candomblé o macumba e ad Haiti al vudù.

¡COMO ADORAN AL SANTO ESTAS TURBA SALVAJE!

Come adorano il santo questi selvaggi!
Il termine fu coniato dagli schiavisti spagnoli per denigrare quella che a loro pareva un’eccessiva devozione verso i santi da parte dei loro schiavi. Atteggiamento che nacque dalla proibizione degli spagnoli verso gli schiavi, pena la morte, di poter praticare la propria religione. Agli schiavi non rimase che occultare le loro pratiche magiche e religiose, camuffando i loro dei con l’iconografia cattolica, in modo da poterli adorare liberamente.

Fu così che gli orisha presero i nomi dei santi cristiani.
  • Changò è Santa Barbara e governa il fuoco, il tuono e il fulmine.
  • Oshun viene raffigurata come Nostra Signora della Caridad del Cobre, la patrona di Cuba, e simboleggia le acque del fiume, oltre a essere riconosciuta come dea dell’amore, della fertilità e del matrimonio.
  • Yemayà è associata a Nostra Signora di Regla, patrona de L’Avana e simbolicamente rappresenta il mare.
  • Elegguà è Sant’Antonio da Padova, ma per la tradizione santera è il bambino degli dei. I suoi poteri sono enormi: apre tutte le strade e governa il destino, rendendo possibile ogni impresa.
  • Obatalà è Nostra Signora della Misericordia ed è raffigurato come il creatore del genere umano.
  • Oyà è Santa Teresa e simboleggia i venti, oltre a vigilare su cimiteri e fulmini.
  • Oggùn si identifica con San Pietro ed è il patrono di tutti i metalli.
Santeria - Changò
Changò

Anche i riti magici yoruba andarono progressivamente a fondersi con le tradizioni della Chiesa cattolica.

Agli orisha si offrono frutti, fiori, candele o i cibi da loro preferiti. Si ricorre al sacrifico di sangue solo quando è a rischio la vita di una persona. I “santeros” (uomini e donne) sono la voce terrena degli orisha. Praticano la predizione del futuro quando il santo, che hanno ricevuto in affidamento, li autorizza.

Il Babalawo è uno dei maggiori sacerdoti. Viene considerato molto potente, grazie alle cerimonie segrete in cui evoca la divinità Orunmila (divinità della profezia). Queste cerimonie non devono mai essere svelate, perché causerebbero il caos spirituale. Il Babalawo possiede molte capacità.

Le tre più importanti sono:
  • Ebò: con questa cerimonia sono eliminate sfortuna, discussioni, problemi, incidenti, malattie e perfino la morte.
  • Paraldo: spiriti maligni o demoni sono rimossi dalla persona o dalla casa.
  • Osodè: è il metodo di divinazione con il quale il sacerdote è in grado di vedere sia il passato che il futuro della persona.
I sistemi di divinazione sono quattro:
  • Il Diloggún: vengono lanciate sedici conchiglie. L’interpretazione e il responso viene fatta in base al numero di conchiglie cadute con la parte concava in alto e mediante una successione di lanci.
  • Biague: si lanciano in aria quattro parti di cocco e il responso viene determinato a seconda della posizione, lato cavo o lato convesso, che assumono sul pavimento.
  • Ékuele: che utilizza una catena formata da otto parti. La catena viene lanciata in aria e a seconda di come sono posizionati i pezzi si può interpretare il responso della divinazione.
  • Tablero de Ifá: richiede lo spargimento di una polvere bianca ricavata da una zanna di elefante su un tavolo in cui i quattro lati sono abbinati ad altrettante divinità.
Nella Santeria sono di fondamentale importanza gli spiriti dei morti, chiamati eggun, che vanno sempre onorati prima degli orisha.

I defunti devono essere nutriti, quindi nella casa di un santero devono esserci bacinelle di acqua, tazzine di caffè, cibo, mazzi di fiori e candele votive. Ogni cerimonia rituale inizia con l’invocazione degli eggun e si svolge attorno ad un tavolo con al centro una coppa consacrata alla guida spirituale del santero.

Alla messa i partecipanti, dopo essersi purificati con l ‘acqua di Florida siedono intorno a un tavolo spesso tenendosi per mano. La cerimonia si svolge dopo il tramonto, con preghiere identiche a quelle che si recitano nella chiesa cattolica.

La Santeria è uno stile di vita. Una religione fatta di elementi naturali, un incontro tra cattolicesimo e credenze africane.
242 pensiero su “SANTERIA”
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