Iside e Serapide

Fino a tempi più recenti, si è creduto che il culto di Serapide fosse stato incoraggiato dai Tolomei per creare una sintesi tra gli dei greci e le divinità dell’Egitto e, in seguito con quelle di tutto il Mediterraneo.

Il culto di Serapide, Osar-Api, è invece nato del tutto spontaneamente

Se ne ha conferma da recenti ricerche dalle quali risulta che, in zone in cui ci si aspettava che i Tolomei avessero tentato una colonizzazione religiosa di questo tipo, sono stati rinvenuti pochissimi templi di Iside e Serapide.

Plutarco fornisce una descrizione di Serapide incentrata sui suoi aspetti ctonii

Serapide era anche adorato come dio dell’azione, quindi particolarmente caro agli uomini che prestavano servizio nelle legioni romane.

Il materiale letterario attestante un collegamento tra Iside e Serapide è scarso, tuttavia la prova ci viene fornita da decine di luoghi templari dove le due divinità coesistettero per molti secoli.

Serapide viene raffigurato come un uomo muscoloso, con barba e capelli ricciuti, mentre Iside è a volte rappresentata come una donna romana di ceto elevato, con uno scialle frangiato e piccoli ricci.

Alcune volte presenta attributi di Demetra come una la spiga di grano.

Serapide racchiude un aspetto più vitale di Osiride e viene celebrato soprattutto come dio guaritore.

Iside e Serapide rappresentano un modello matrimoniale esemplare.

Il loro ruolo di dispensatori di grano, simboleggiato dal modius, cioè moggio, la misura del grano che spesso compariva sulla testa di Serapide, era di particolare importanza per l’impero di Roma che dipendeva dall’Egitto come “granaio di Roma”.

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