Akhenaton faraone pacifista?

Durante il dodicesimo anno di regno del faraone Akhenaton fu celebrata una sontuosa festa in cui tutte le nazioni portarono il proprio omaggio al sovrano.

Il paese godeva ancora della potenza ottenuta dalle azioni militari dei re guerrieri che precedettero il faraone.

Sembrava però che ad Akhenaton, interessasse solo l’adorazione di Aton e lo sviluppo della teologia solare e molto meno la sicurezza del paese.

Quando i popoli dell’Asia furono minacciati dagli Ittiti, il sovrano non ritenne necessario concedere il sostegno delle truppe egizie ai suoi alleati e nemmeno scese in campo per difendere il territorio di Amurru, colonia egizia conquistata dai suoi antenati.

Perché questo atteggiamento passivo verso il proprio paese?

Alcuni studiosi hanno visto in Akhenaton un faraone pacifista, seguace di una filosofia incentrata su un grande amore rivolto a tutti gli esseri viventi.

Un uomo contrario al concetto di guerra, tuttavia su diversi rilievi il faraone è rappresentato nell’atto di uccidere i nemici, mentre Nefertiti colpisce con una mazza le loro teste.

Dai documenti dell’archivio diplomatico di Amarna, risulta che il faraone chiedeva tributi agli stati fedeli alla corona e che dimostrava di non sentirsi affatto minacciato dal sorgere di un nuovo impero.

I principi asiatici, al contrario, erano seriamente spaventati dall’avanza ittita, tanto che alcuni si ribellarono, altri si allearono con il nemico dando così inizio ad una serie di guerre interne alle quali Akhenaton non diede grande importanza.

Il faraone si limitò ad imporre ordini di risarcimento a chi distruggeva una città che era sotto la protezione reale.

Ribaddi, re di Byblos, scrisse più di sessanta lettere ad Akhenaton pregandolo di intervenire in suo soccorso, ma non ebbe alcuna risposta e fu costretto a lasciare il paese. Diventò difficile capire quale stato vassallo era ancora fedele al sovrano d’Egitto e quale era passato dalla parte dei nemici.

Un documento appartenuto a Tutankhamon ci informa sullo stato di abbandono del paese:

” I templi degli dei e delle dee da Elefantina fino alle paludi del Delta, cominciavano a crollare: i loro santuari cadevano lentamente divenendo dei cumuli di macerie coperti da erbacce. Le dimore divine erano annientate, sentieri abusivi passavano per i loro recinti”. E’ una testimonianza che comunque bisogna prendere con le dovute cautele, tenendo conto della propaganda politica in occasione del ritorno agli antichi culti.

Ad Amarna Akhenaton visse un’esistenza felice

Il culto di Aton sembrava conferire energia divina alla famiglia reale che rappresentava per i sudditi l’unico intermediario tra Aton e il popolo. Infatti nelle raffigurazioni i membri reali sono i soli a donare offerte al disco solare.

Nel quotidiano tutti facevano offerte ad Aton, ma come fedeli e non come sacerdoti, figura che manca totalmente nelle raffigurazioni che ci sono pervenute.

La venerazione nei confronti del dio, però, non bastava al paese, che aveva bisogno di altro e il sogno armaniano iniziò ad avere ripercussioni negative sulla gestione dell’impero.

Tutti i templi erano stati chiusi per consentire la solo venerazione di Aton.

L’esercito non aveva più potere e lo stato era in preda alla corruzione. Akhenaton era sempre più distante dal popolo, perso nelle sue riflessioni teologiche, lontano dai doveri politici e amministrativi del regno, che aveva delegato a vari funzionari.

Se l’Egitto politico fu abbandonato a sé stesso dal faraone, non dobbiamo però dimenticare i risvolti positivi che investirono in particolare la sfera artistica.
Fu proprio in questo periodo che gli artisti di corte fecero i primi tentativi per rappresentare lo spazio, differenziando la destra dalla sinistra spingendosi in ricerche prospettiche.

Inoltre furono impiegate grandi risorse per la costruzione di templi ed edifici sacri, infine il vasellame miceneo, ritrovato tra le varie rovine, dimostra che il regno armaniano fece prosperare i commerci con il mondo egeo.

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