Gli Assiri fondarono una monarchia che solitamente viene suddivisa in tre periodi:

  • Impero antico (2003-1365 a.C.), potente sotto Shamshiada, poi vassallo dei babilonesi e degli hurriti.
  • Medio impero (1365-932 a.C.) che conquistò la Babilonia con Tukultininurta e la costa mediterranea con Tiglatpileser I, ma declinò per la pressione dei nomadi aramei.
  • Nuovo impero (936-612 a.C.) che conquistò Damasco, Israele, Fenicia, Babilonia ed Egitto, ma che poi dovette cedere ai medi, nel 612 a.C., che distrussero la capitale Ninive.

La monarchia assira era di tipo aristrocratica-militare, feste e divinità erano simili a quelle dei babilonesi, l’economia era agricola e con un buon commercio.

L’assiro, appartenente alla lingua semitica del gruppo orientale era simile al babilonese, si scriveva in caratteri cuneiformi, anche se per i testi storici, religiosi, politici e i poemi si usava scrivere in babilonese.

L’esercito terribile
La fama di feroci dominatori non conosce rivali nella storia, una reputazione che oltre ad avere radici bibliche troviamo raccontata nei documenti assiri

Henry Rawlinson
Il padre dell’assirologia

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