LUOGHI STORICI

Chan Chan

Una leggenda narra che Chan Chan fu fondata dal creatore del Sole e della Luna, un drago rappresentato come un arcobaleno, simbolo dell’energia cosmica. In realtà questa città, interamente costruita con mattoni di terra mista a paglia, era la capitale dei Chimu.

L’origine di questo popolo è ancora sconosciuta.

Quel che sappiamo è che i Chimu avevano un’organizzazione polita e sociale molto complessa. Erano abili ingegneri in grado di progettare sistemi di irrigazione e avevano una grande conoscenza della metallurgia.

Preferivano un approccio utilitaristico all’arte. Infatti gli oggetti che produssero, ceramiche nere, tessuti manufatti in oro, avevano come prima caratteristica la funzionalità.

Fondata tra il 1100 e il 1470 fu la più avanzata tecnologicamente delle civiltà contemporanee peruviane.

Chan Chan ricopriva un’area di venti chilometri quadrati e nel XV secolo contava 60.000 abitanti. Un muro perimetrale racchiudeva dieci piccole città a pianta trapezoidale, protette da mura alte dieci metri e spesse quattro, divise da strade larghe fino a otto metri.

Chan Chan - Perù

Le strutture erano ricoperte da fango dipinto a colori vivaci, mentre per gli edifici più importanti si usavano lamine d’oro.

La cittadella che ha mantenuto il miglior stato di conservazione è quella di Tschudi. Essa prese il nome dal viaggiatore viennese che per primo la studiò a metà del XIX secolo.

Tschudi, al pari delle altre cittadelle, è costituita da un cortile cerimoniale sul quale si aprono molteplici stanze collegate tra loro da corridoi, adibite a uso civile e religioso. Vi è secondo cortile confinante con quello che era un bacino per la raccolta dell’acqua. Troviamo poi gli ambienti destinati soldati, alle tombe reali e alle abitazioni dei dignitari.

Interessanti sono i fregi che decorano gran parte delle mura. Nonostante siano stilizzati, si possono riconoscere le onde marine e i pesci, a testimonianza che i Chimu erano una civiltà marittima.

Chan Chan - Fregi
Non sappiamo come sia nata questa civiltà. La sua fine, invece, è ampiamente documentata.

Tra il 1465 e il 1470, i Chimu dovettero piegarsi all’avanzata degli Incas. La decisione di non combattere salvò Chan Chan dalle razzie. La città rimase vuota ma intatta, fino all’arrivo degli spagnoli che la depredarono.

Rimasta esposta alle intemperie pian piano si sgretolò e nonostante gli interventi del governo peruviano il degrado di Chan Chan è considerevole.

234 pensiero su “CHAN CHAN: LA PIU’ GRANDE CITTA’ DI MATTONI ADOBE”
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