Feudalesimo

Il feudalesimo era una forma di governo per la quale, il re o l’imperatore o un grande proprietario terriero, organizzava il lavoro dei suoi sudditi attraverso una gerarchia di persone che venivano compensate mediante la concessione di terre.

Nel IX secolo d.c. Carlo Magno diventato imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero riprese l’uso dei sovrani barbarici di concedere feudi ai guerrieri più meritevoli, nacque così il feudalesimo medioevale.

La società feudale si divideva in tre classi : il re, i feudatari e i servi della gleba.

I feudatari erano proprietari della terra ed esercitavano il comando sia politico che militare sostituendosi alle funzioni dello stato.

Suddividevano la terra tra i contadini i quali disponevano di tutti i mezzi per lavorarla, amministravano la giustizia per tutti gli abitanti del villaggi obbligandoli a servirsi dei loro mulini, forni, taverne e vietando qualunque forma di concorrenza.

Imponevano tasse sull’attività di scambio, pedaggi sulle strade e ponti ed esigevano prestazioni di lavoro e imposte ordinarie e straordinarie. In queste condizioni il ricambio sociale, l’ascesa di gruppi sociali e di individui era difficile e lenta.

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