LE MASTABE

Mastabe Giza
Particolare dei rilievi dell’edicola della mastaba di Idu.


Si vede il defunto che  era “scriba delle lettere reali” e  “capo degli scribi dei servi”addetti alle  proprietà templari, davanti alla tavola d’offerta seduto su un seggio, sotto il quale  è raffigurata, in piccolo, la moglie Meretites.









Ai lati della piramide di Cheope, escludendo la parte settentrionale, vi sono oltre alle piccole piramidi delle regine, numerose mastabe destinate ai membri della famiglia reale, agli alti funzionari dello stato e ai dignitari del culto.

Appartengono alla IV, alla V e alla VI dinastia.
Mastabe Giza

La mastaba, che consiste in un pozzo scavato nella roccia e che termina in profondità allargandosi in una stanza dove veniva posta la salma del defunto.

Sulla superficie vi era una sovrastruttura in muratura destinata a luogo di culto per il morto.

La sovrastruttura, a forma di parallelepipedo con pareti rastremate, dapprima compatta, subì numerose varianti fino a divenire un insieme di vani, con una cappella, destinata a luogo di culto e alle offerte giornaliere, che in un primo tempo era situata all’esterno sulla parete orientale della tomba.

Le pareti dei vani erano decorate con scene inerenti alla carica del funzionario inumato.

Di qui il grande valore storico, Infatti grazie a queste raffigurazioni abbiamo potuto conoscere istituzioni e vita degli antichi egizi.

La prima camera a pilastri che precede il luogo delle offerte presenta lungo la parete sud una fila di statue ad altorilievo allineate entro un’unica nicchia, con funzione protettiva e sostitutiva del defunto, per assicurarne la sopravvivenza.

Anche la mastaba di Idu presenta la stessa abbondanza di decorazioni scultoree.

Nella camera delle offerte, scavata nella roccia, si trovano sei statue dentro singole nicchie con architravi e montanti con scritti nomi e titoli del defunto, e l’edicola funeraria con la parte inferiore ritagliata a nicchia che ospita un’insolita rappresentazione del defunto a mezzo busto con le mani protese verso una tavola d’offerta .

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