LA CITTA’ NEL DELTA

Piramses

Ramses II costruì più di ogni altro faraone dell’antico Egitto. Durante il suo regno realizzò un numero incredibile di templi, edifici, statue e obelischi.

Perchè lo fece?

Principalmente per dimostrare la sua potenza attraverso enormi opere architettoniche e per glorificare il suo status di dio vivente.

Per raggiungere il suo scopo non esitò a impossessarsi di monumenti più antichi.
Alcuni li fece restaurare e vi appose il cartiglio con il suo nome, oppure li fece inglobare all’interno di costruzioni più grandiose da lui stesso edificate.

Altri ancora, poi, furono addirittura smantellati per servire come “magazzino” di materie prime da riutilizzare in nuove opere architettoniche.

A farne le spese fu persino la piramide di Chefren (a Giza), dalla quale vennero prelevati interi blocchi di granito per edificare il basamento del Grande Tempio di Ptah, a Menfi.

Anche lo stile scelto da Ramses serviva a magnificare la grandezza.

Nei templi, per esempio, si moltiplicarono a dismisura le statue di dimensioni colossali e le colonne, fittamente decorate da geroglifici e disegni stilizzati. Le pareti dei templi e degli edifici, piene di raffigurazioni sia sacre che guerresche, dovevano celebrare le divinità e le imprese del sovrano.

Ramses in persona si recava nei cantieri per controllare da vicino le varie fasi dei lavori e spesso addirittura andava nelle cave per scegliere le pietre più belle.

Alcune iscrizioni,come quelle sulla Stele dell’anno VIII riportano le parole di incitamento e di elogio che il faraone rivolgeva agli operai. Si curava molto di loro, facendo in modo che non mancassero mai cibo, abiti, sandali e acqua fresca in abbondanza, così che tutti potessero dedicarsi al lavoro senza disagi.

Tra i grandi progetti che Ramses realizzò ci fu quello di una nuova capitale, che eguagliasse i fasti degli altri due grandi centri nevralgici dell’Egitto : Menfi e Tebe.

Pi-Ramses (la casa di Ramses), così la chiamò, era già una realtà nel quinto anno del suo regno e lì il faraone trasferì la sua residenza. La città sorse sull’antica Avaris, nel delta orientale del Nilo, località a lui cara poichè già vi si trovava la residenza estiva del padre, Sethi I.

Ma quasi sicuramente la scelta del luogo aveva anche altre finalità. “Era la culla della sua famiglia e questo è certamente il motivo principale. C’erano però anche ragioni militari e strategiche alla base della costruzione di Pi-Ramses.

Sorse infatti a ridosso della frontiera orientale, una zona che andava controllata perchè esposta al pericolo di continue invasioni; era inoltre un importante snodo commerciale che collegava il mondo egizio e l’asiatico”.

La nuova capitale era molto ricca.

I campi erano rigogliosi e produttivi, i fiumi pieni di pesci e i magazzini colmi di cibo.

La popolazione era composta da gente proveniente da varie zone del regno come la Libia,la Nubia, Canaan e Amurru. Molti erano prigionieri di guerra, ma il rapporto con gli Egizi era pacifico e tutti godevano della prosperità di quei luoghi.

La gloria di Pi-Ramses si oscurò solo quando i sovrani della XXI dinastia, a più di un secolo dalla morte di Ramses, decisero di spostare la capitale a Tanis e per darle lustro saccheggiarono molti degli edifici della città.

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