FARAONI

Hyksos
Avaris

Gli Hyksos (nome derivato dall’egizio Heqa‑kasut, che vuol dire “sovrani dei paesi stranieri”.

Appartenevano a quelle popolazioni asiatiche che lentamente si insediarono in Egitto durante la fine del Medio Regno.

La loro composizione etnica comprendeva Semiti, Cananei e anche coloro che sarebbero poi diventati gli Ebrei.

L’arrivo di queste genti era stato caratterizzato da una lenta infiltrazione, che portò in territorio egiziano un numero sempre maggiore di genti straniere senza però preoccupare i faraoni.

Inizialmente i sovrani d’Egitto non videro in questa ondata migratoria una minaccia.

Le popolazioni asiatiche stabilitesi nel Nord dell’Egitto diedero vita a un gruppo di comunità che presto occupò la regione del Delta. Quando il potere centrale della XIII dinastia si indebolì, gli Hyksos approfittarono del momento di fragilità del Paese per imporre la propria supremazia. Partirono dalla linea orientale del Delta e da Avaris avanzarono verso Menfi, esercitando un potere che non superò il Medio Egitto.

Non si conoscono con precisione le date che segnarono questi avvenimenti. La presa di Avaris da parte degli Hyksos può essere stabilita grazie a una stele risalente all’anno 400:

quarto giorno del quarto mese dell’inondazione, del re dell’Alto e del Basso Egitto Seth, grande di valore, il Figlio di Ra, il suo diletto, amato da Ra-Harakhty”.

Si tratta di un testo dell’epoca di Ramses II che riporta la data di fondazione del tempio del dio Seth edificato dagli Hyksos ad Avaris verso il 1720 a.C.

Gli Hyksos, infatti, adottarono come dio dinastico proprio il rivale di Osiride.

Adorarono anche due divinità guerriere di origine siro-palestinese: Anat e Astarte. La prima dea era armata di scudo e ascia mentre la seconda veniva rappresentata a cavallo, completamente nuda, con la  testa ornata dalla corona atef, un dono del dio Ra.

Gli Hyksos regnarono sull’Egitto per due dinastie: la XV e la XVI, tra loro contemporanee e di cui la seconda costituisce il ramo vassallo della prima. Poche sono le testimonianze che si sono conservate della dominazione asiatica in quanto i faraoni che regnarono successivamente tentarono di cancellare ogni traccia dei sovrani stranieri. 

Le dinastie posteriori offrirono una visione distorta di questo periodo dipingendola come un’epoca nefasta per il popolo Egizio.

In realtà il dominio degli Hyksos non fu così deleterio per il Paese.

Durante il loro governo conservarono la stessa struttura amministrativa dei faraoni Egizi, rispettarono anche i medesimi canoni artistici e diedero impulso alla diffusione della letteratura.

I re asiatici portarono avanti la tradizione tipicamente egizia di incidere i propri nomi sugli scarabei, gli insetti sacri considerati divinità creatrici, che, sotto forma di amuleti, venivano collocati tra le bende della mummia.

Gli scarabei rappresentavano la fonte di luce e di calore che accompagnava il defunto verso la resurrezione.

Inoltre gli stessi re Hyksos si presentarono come faraoni a tutti gli effetti, pur conservando la propria cultura e i propri nomi semitici. Dall’alto della loro carica di sovrani si dedicarono alla costruzione di monumenti proprio come i faraoni che li avevano preceduti. L’invasione straniera ebbe anche un aspetto positivo in quanto fornì qualche vantaggio alla popolazione sottomessa.

Per quanto riguarda le innovazioni in campo militare, gli Hyksos introdussero in Egitto l’uso del cavallo come animale da traino e del carro da guerra, oltre che la spada curva, gli elmi e le corazze.

La loro presenza in Egitto è testimoniata anche a Tell el Mackhuta e Tell el Yahudiya, località situate nella regione del Delta. A Sharuhen in Palestina, dove gli Hyksos possedevano una roccaforte di fondamentale importanza militare.

Il loro regno è segnato anche da importanti rapporti commerciali (instaurati nel corso degli anni con gli abitanti del Levante. Gli Hyksos ebbero contatti con Creta, l’Egeo, l’Anatolia e alcune località del Vicino Oriente e inoltre strinsero legami di collaborazione con la Nubia, con la quale si allearono per contrastare il potere tebano.

L’ espansione di queste genti durò circa mezzo secolo prima che riuscissero a dominare l’Egitto.

Il fondatore della prima dinastia degli Hyksos è Salitis che probabilmente regnò vent’anni, dalla regione del Delta fino a Gebelein.

In Egitto gli Asiatici non erano gli unici ad avere potere. A Tebe nacque una nuova dinastia di sovrani, la XVII, che ebbe origine da un ramo della XIII nel periodo in cui a capo degli Hyksos c’era il sovrano Yaqub-har, successore di Salitis.

I re tebani regnarono da Elefantina ad Abydos per sessantacinque anni. Li seguirono Antef V, Nebiryerau I e altri. Il re più famoso di questa parte della dinastia è Sobekemsaf II che governò da Tebe per sedici anni e fece costruire monumenti a Karnak e ad Abydos.

Per quanto riguarda gli Hyksos, invece, a Yaqub-har successe Khyan, che insieme con Apophis I è il più noto dei sovrani stranieri. Questo re detiene un primato: è, fra tutti i monarchi dell’epoca faraonica, quello che in assoluto ha lasciato tracce di sé in un più vasto raggio d’azione.

Gli archeologi hanno rinvenuto oggetti con inciso il nome reale a Creta, Gebelein, Bubastis, Cnosso e in Palestina, scoperte che testimoniano una intensa attività commerciale. In tutto questo fervore la Nubia continuava a essere pacifica. Il re nubiano Negeh prese il potere – probabilmente con l’aiuto di ufficiali egizi – nel regno di Kush. Stabilì la capitale nella città di Buhen estendendo il suo regnò da Elefantina fino, forse, alla quarta cateratta.

Dopo il regno del re Hyksos Khyan, di cui non conosciamo il termine, in Egitto dominarono due grandi personalità: quella del re Antef VII per la città di Tebe e Apophis I per gli Hyksos, di Avaris.

Antef VII fu un re che guidò in prima persona l’esercito negli scontri armati.

Alla sua morte volle portare con sè nell’aldilà il corredo funebre del guerriero e nel suo sarcofago furono trovati due archi e sei frecce. Durante il suo regno la città di Tebe riuscì a mantenere buoni rapporti con i sudditi di Apophis I tanto è vero che sono stati riscontrati anche legami di parentela fra gli Asiatici e la famiglia reale tebana.

Hyksos
Mummia di Seqenenra Ta’o I

Le lotte aperte tra i due regni iniziarono alla morte di Antef VII, quando salì al trono Ta’o I e i rapporti si incrinarono definitivamente con il re successivo, Seqenenra Ta’o II, detto “Il valoroso” Questo sovrano è uno dei protagonisti del racconto intitolato ” La disputa tra Apophis e Seqenenra”, pervenutaci grazie a una copia della XIX dinastia.

La città di Avaris e quella di Tebe verso la fine del Secondo Periodo Intermedio giunsero allo scontro.

Altre testimonianze di questa guerra tra Nord e Sud derivano da tre importanti documenti.

Una stele giuntaci incompleta, un’altra nota con il nome di stele di Karnak e la Tavoletta Carnavon, dal nome del Lord inglese che la collezionò, e che completa le altre due. I testi descrivono le ostilità tra tebani e Hyksos e la lotta di liberazione intrapresa da Kamose, figlio o fratello di Seqenenra Ta’o II contro gli Asiatici.

Hyksos
Sarcofago Faraone Kamose

Il re salì al trono intorno al 1550 in seguito alla morte del predecessore prendendo il posto del legittimo erede al trono, Ahmose, ancora troppo giovane per detenere il potere.

La preoccupazione principale di questo nuovo re fu quella di eliminare gli Hyksos dall’Egitto. Kamose, infatti, non accettava l’idea di dividere il Paese con gli Asiatici e impegnò tutte le sue energie per liberarlo.

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