L’UNIVERSO SACRO DEGLI AZTECHI

Mitologia Azteca
Templo Mayor

Uno degli episodi più importanti della conquista del Messico fu la “mattanza del Templo Mayor” di Tenochtitlan.

Racconta il conquistatore Diego de Holguin:

Pedro de Alvarado e i suoi uomini catturarono due nativi legati a due sacchi di semi che rappresentavano gli dei Huitzilopochtli (dio della guerra) e Tezcatlipoca (specchio fumante), ai quali era dedicata questa festa.

I due prigionieri confessarono che gli indios stavano preparando un attacco contro gli spagnoli.

Aggiunsero che erano lì per essere sacrificati dopo la battaglia ed erano orgogliosi di andarsene con i loro dei.

E’ una testimonianza eccezionale perché descrive l’atteggiamento dei futuri sacrificati verso il loro destino, tema scarsamente riportato nei vari documenti.

Mitologia Azteca
Huitzilopochtli
Gli aztechi avevano una concezione millenaria della religione, con una sorprendente continuità di alcuni riti o simboli religiosi.

E’ utile ricordare la diversità e la complessa evoluzione religiosa degli abitanti dell’America Centrale nel corso della storia precolombiana.

Per quanto riguarda la regione mesoamericana gli studiosi delimitarono questo spazio geografico, dai fiumi Sinaloa, Lerma e Panuco nel nord del Messico fino al Costa Rica.

Questo in funzione di elementi culturali condivisi dalle diverse civiltà che si svilupparono in queste zone.

Prima della conquista, qualsiasi attività, dall’ incoronazione del re all’ andare a caccia, aveva una dimensione religiosa, fondata su determinati miti che richiedeva riti adeguati.

A causa della conquista spagnola e degli sforzi dei missionari per cancellare la religione indigena, andarono perduti edifici religiosi, statue delle divinità, pitture, bassorilievi, manoscritti pittografici, manufatti, ori e ceramiche.

Nonostante ciò gli archeologici hanno riportato alla luce varie strutture architettoniche.

Il Recinto Sacro del Templo Mayor, lLa Casa delle Aquile, situata a nord del Templo Mayor che fu costruita nel XV secolo e fu ampliata in tre occasioni prima di essere parzialmente distrutta nel 1521.

Mitologia azteca

Gli scavi e gli studi hanno permesso di ritrovare bracieri in stile tolteco su cui si bruciava il copale per gli dei e anche quattro statue in ceramica a grandezza naturale.

Due di esse rappresentavano uomini travestiti da aquile, mentre le altre due raffiguravano il dio della morte Mictlanteculhtli.

Oltre agli edifici, gli archeologi rinvennero numerosi resti ossei di animali e di uomini. Grazie agli studi sulle ossa umane, gli antropologi hanno potuto determinare la causa della morte.

Il ritrovamento di quarantadue bambini sepolti nell’angolo nord-occidentale del Templo Mayor, insieme con anfore che rappresentano il dio Tláloc, fa pensare a riti dedicati al dio della pioggia.

Nella maggior parte dei siti centroamericani sono state ritrovate offerte sepolte. Nel Recinto Sacro di Tenochtitlan, sono state rinvenute circa centro trenta offerte.

Gli undici depositi che compongono il “Complesso A” furono sepolti contemporaneamente durante la cerimonia d’inaugurazione del nuovo ampliamento del Templo Mayor.

Ogni offerta comprendeva vari strati che rappresentavano un livello del cosmo.

Sabbia marina e conchiglie per lo spazio acquatico del Tlalocan, mentre la disposizione di una pelle di puma, di placche dermiche di un coccodrillo e di carapaci di tartarughe rappresentavano la superficie terrestre.

Sopra questo strato furono ritrovate statue del dio fuoco, quarantun crani di sacrificati per decapitazione e accessori legati a Xipe Tótec (Nostro Signore lo Scorticato).

Come molti popoli mesoamericani, gli aztechi, veneravano una moltitudine di dei.

Tra gli dei dipinti sugli altari di Tizatlan, risalta la rappresentazione di Tezcalipoca, il “Signore dello Specchio Fumante”, il cui abbigliamento è quasi identico a quello che caratterizza questa divinità nel Codice Borgia.

Questo manoscritto pittografico, insieme con altri codici religiosi, costituisce il materiale più importante per lo studio della religione mesoamericana.

Divinità con accessori carichi di simbolismo, immagini dell’universo, calendari, illustrazioni di miti e riti sono i pochi testi, per altro, redatti dai missionari, che sfuggirono alla distruzione del tempo, degli spagnoli e degli stessi indigeni.

La torre dei teschi

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