PERIODI STORICI

L’uomo del Paleolitico conosceva alcune “tecnologie” di base come l’accensione del fuoco, la cottura degli alimenti, la fabbricazione di attrezzi come asce, coltelli, archi, arpioni e spille.

Paleolitico

L’alimentazione si basava esclusivamente di carne e, in maniera minore, sulla raccolta di frutti e bacche. La comunicazione avveniva attraverso una forma relativamente evoluta di linguaggio.

Nell’ultimo periodo gli uomini si riunirono in una sorta di organizzazione sociale detta “clan”.
Paleolitico

I clan erano una sorta di grande famiglia. L’uomo del Paleolitico riteneva di discendere da un unico antenato identificato con il cosiddetto “totem”, ossia un animale o una pianta che proteggevano il gruppo. Nelle società moderne le regole fondamentali di comportamento sono stabilite dal diritto, nelle società primitive invece il controllo sociale era garantito dal “tabù”, spesso associato ai miti.

Il “tabù” era un impedimento posto all’azione umana.

Un comando ad non attuare determinate azioni perché il compierle, anche involontariamente, avrebbe provocato una contaminazione che si sarebbe estesa a tutta la comunità. Il terrore ed il senso di colpa per aver infranto un tabù erano così forti che chi lo commetteva finiva per ammalarsi o lasciarsi morire. Tabù era, per esempio, cibarsi di alcuni alimenti, sposare una persona che non corrispondeva a determinate caratteristiche, soffermarsi in alcuni luoghi e parlare con determinate persone.

La magia era un modo attraverso la quale si pensava di poter dominare le forze della natura.
Paleolitico

Nelle tombe preistoriche sono stati trovati corredi funerari che dovevano servire al defunto durante la nuova vita. A volte gli scheletri erano rannicchiati, con il capo rivolto ad oriente e spesso le ossa erano colorate con ocra rossa, in modo da ridare vita al cadavere restituendogli magicamente il sangue sottratto dalla morte. Il cranio, probabilmente, era considerato la sede della vita spirituale, per questo il cervello veniva estratto dal cranio dei defunti e mangiato durante un rito che doveva assorbirne le proprietà vivificatrici.

Durante il Paleolitico si verificarono quattro grandi glaciazioni, che determinarono consistenti modificazioni ambientali e spinsero gli animali a ricercare sempre nuovi ambienti per garantirsi la sopravvivenza.

I cacciatori furono costretti a spostarsi, diffondendosi in vari luoghi della Terra.

Circa 10.000 anni fa, quando ebbe termine la glaciazione di Würm , l’uomo si trovò di fronte ad una geografia molto diversa. Le regioni settentrionali, dopo il ritiro dei ghiacci, erano coperte di foreste, altre si erano trasformate in deserti.

Preistoria
Mammhut

Alcuni animali che erano riusciti a sopravvivere, come le renne, la tigre dei dai denti a sciabola e il mammut, che aveva fornito all’uomo non solo cibo, ma anche le pelli necessarie per ripararsi dai rigori del freddo, erano migrati verso nord.

La cultura sociale nel Paleolitico
Alcune “tecnologie” di base erano conosciute dall’uomo nel Paleolitico: l’accensione del fuoco, la cottura degli alimenti, la fabbricazione di attrezzi come asce, coltelli, archi, arpioni e spille.

Dagli ominidi all’Homo sapiens sapiens
I Primati furono i primi, tra i tanti mammiferi presenti sulla terra, che si adattarono meglio alle mutate condizioni climatiche

Chirurgia cranica
Ephraim Squier nel 1860 in Perù fece una sensazionale scoperta, a caccia di reperti fossili, dissotterrò il cranio di un uomo dell’Età della pietra

Culto della divinità femminile nell’età neolitica

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