MESOPOTAMIA

Mesopotamia

L’espansione arabo-islamica nel VII secolo portava all’occupazione di un enorme territorio, tra cui la Mesopotamia. Nel 750 fu fondata la città di Baghdad sulle rive del Tigri che crebbe sino a divenire la più grande città del suo tempo..

Dopo aver raggiunto il suo apice si espose alle mire di altri popoli, tra questi i mongoli che conquistarono Baghdad nel 1258 radendola al suolo.

Nel 1392 venne nuovamente saccheggiata dalle truppe di Tamerlano.
Dopo la caduta del suo impero l’attuale Iraq venne inglobato per un breve periodo nella Persia (1509) e quindi conquistato dagli ottomani del cui impero entrò a far parte nel 1535.

Durante la Prima Guerra Mondiale l’Impero Ottomano si schierò contro la Gran Bretagna, questa che già da anni premeva sulla regione, colse subito l’occasione che le si offriva.

Dal 1914 al 1917 l’attuale Iraq venne progressivamente occupato dalle truppe angloindiane.

Il 3 ottobre 1932 il Paese otteneva un’indipendenza formale, visto che in ogni aspetto strategico la Gran Bretagna esercitava il proprio controllo.

Dal 1936 cominciarono una serie di colpi di stato ad opera di diversi gruppi di ufficiali. Solo il trattato di Portsmouth nel 1948 restituì una limitata sovranità all’Iraq.

Il 17 luglio 1968 un altro colpo di stato portava al potere il partito Baath con a capo il generale Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr.

Il 16 luglio 1979 Saddam assunse nelle proprie mani tutti i poteri e lanciò una escalation propagandistica contro l’Iran. Dopo una serie di incidenti di frontiera le truppe irachene varcarono il confine e invasero il territorio iraniano con la conseguenza di una guerra che durò molti anni.

Il 2 agosto 1990 l’esercito iracheno invase il Kuwait. La reazione internazionale fu immediata.

Il 16 gennaio iniziarono i bombardamenti su Iraq e Kuwait da parte degli alleati internazioni: è la Guerra del Golfo. Il 24 febbraio iniziò l’offensiva terrestre della coalizione in Kuwait e Iraq: il giorno successivo Baghdad ordinò il ritiro delle proprie truppe dal Kuwait.

20 marzo 2003 ore 2.00 scaduto l’ultimatum di Bush a Saddam Hussein, che sosteneva che l’Iraq fosse in possesso di armi batteriologiche.

Di tali armi non furono mai state trovate tracce dagli ispettori dell’Onu.

Assiri
La monarchia assira era di tipo aristrocratica-militare, feste e divinità erano simili a quelle dei babilonesi, l’economia era agricola e con un buon commercio.
 –L’esercito terribile
La fama di feroci dominatori non conosce rivali nella storia, una reputazione che oltre ad avere radici bibliche troviamo raccontata nei documenti assiri

Babilonesi
I babilonesi si stabilirono nella regione mesopotamica dopo i Sumeri, e svilupparono una civiltà che sotto il dominio politico di amorrei, cassiti, elamiti e varie dinastie nazionali durò dal 2003 al 539 a.C.

Codice di Hammurabi
Il codice di Hammurabi si può considerare, uno dei codici più estesi di tutto il vicino Oriente, per questo è di grande interesse

Persiani
I persiani, soggiogati dai Medi, grazie ai re della dinastia achemenide, si riscattarono diventando grandi conquistatori.

Sumeri
Oltre ad organizzarsi in città-stato, con leggi che garantivano l’equilibrio sociale, costruirono le famose ziggurat ed inventarono le scrittura cuneiforme.

Sargon
Sargon il condottiero creatore di imperi, verso il 2300 a.C. conquistò tutta la Mesopotamia.

Mitologia Mesopotamica
Ogni città aveva un tempio per onorare i propri dei protettori, in seguito furono costruite le ziggurat, la casa in cui abitava il dio quando scendeva in mezzo al popolo, accolto solitamente in un piccolo tempio dalla figlia del re con la quale si univa in matrimonio

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