Festa Sed
Allo scadere del trentesimo anno di regno, i faraoni celebravano la festa detta “sed” o del giubileo reale.

La cerimonia doveva dimostrare il vigore del sovrano, condizione necessaria per il buon andamento del regno.

Uno dei momenti culminanti della manifestazione era la corsa rituale del sovrano che dimostrava così il proprio vigore. Doveva compiere tre giri intorno a due costruzioni che simboleggiavano pietre confinarie.

Il complesso architettonico simboleggiava in tutte le strutture i compiti regali e l’unione dell’Egitto: le cappelle, le case del Nord e del Sud e il palco reale con i padiglioni per i due troni.

L’altare rappresentava i limiti meridionali e settentrionali del Paese.

Il nome “sed” dato alla festa deriva dal termine con cui gli egizi indicavano la coda di animale (toro o leone) che faceva parte dell’abbigliamento regale (pendeva dalla vita del re) e simboleggiava la sua potenza.

La cerimonia si divideva in tre fasi: la prima ripeteva i riti dell’incoronazione.

Il re, vestito con il caratteristico abito bianco che lo avvolgeva completamente lasciandogli scoperte solo testa e mani, riceveva le corone dell’Alto e Basso Egitto mentre stava seduto alternativamente su due troni, ognuno posto sotto una cappella.

Nella seconda fase entravano in scena la sposa del sovrano con i figli che rappresentavano l’eredità dinastica.

Nella terza fase il re alzava il pilastro “djed” (una colonna di pietra che simboleggiava forse la spina dorsale del dio Osiride) per sottolineare la forza e la stabilità del suo potere.

La festa “sed” si concludeva con una processione in cui il faraone faceva visita alle principali divinità del Paese.
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