FARAONI

Sesostri I
Sesostri I

Con la salita al trono del faraone Sesostri I ( che guidò il paese per quarantacinque anni), l’ Egitto ritornò definitivamente agli antichi splendori e diventò un vero e proprio impero.

La popolazione non si sentiva minacciata da attacchi di genti straniere poichè i confini erano stati resi sicuri dalle spedizioni militari volute dal re. Rifiorirono le arti, dalla scultura all’architettura, dalla poesia alla letteratura.

L’ economia prosperò ed ebbe inizio un’importante opera di bonifica che rese fertile e prosperoso il Fayyum, la zona ove era popolare il culto del dio-coccodrillo Sobek

Questo territorio era una vasta area che si trovava a circa quaranta metri sotto il livello del mare. Le acque del canale Bahr-Yussuf, durante le inondazioni, si riversavano nella depressione e formavano un grande lago paludoso dove vivevano i coccodrilli.

Fayyum significa “il Paese del lago” e la sua capitale, chiamata poi dai greci Crocodipolis, si trovava a ottanta chilometri da Menfi.

Per fermare le inondazioni furono realizzati argini e piccole dighe che però non assicurarono buoni risultati.
Gli Egizi dovettero attendere gli interventi promossi da Sesostri II per vedere scomparire le paludi.

Sesostri I diede un notevole impulso anche ai viaggi e alle spedizioni nelle terre straniere, specialmente nella terra di Punt.

Il faraone spinse i suoi uomini anche in Sinai e nelle zone dei deserti.

Fu il primo faraone ad abbandonare la capitale per inoltrarsi fino ai confini di Kush, in Nubia senza però mai riuscire a conquistarla. I viaggi, le spedizioni e le azioni militari e pacifiche di Sesostri I presentano un alone di leggenda, come del resto la figura stessa del sovrano.

Una grande stele litica ritrovata a Mit-Rahina nel Medio Egitto nel 1974, e la cui traduzione non è stata ancora ultimata, proverebbe, che Sesostri I si spinse fino in Asia, confermando così quello che alcuni storici classici, come Eorodoto, avevano sostenuto, e cioè che Sesostri conquistò alcuni territori asiatici.

Stando a questo importante ritrovamento, Sesostri I e il figlio Amenhemat II potrebbero essersi inoltrati nel Vicino Oriente, fino in Anatolia e, probabilmente fino al Mar Nero.

Sesostri I aveva una grande esperienza in materia di viaggi e spedizioni. Prima di diventare re era stato nominato dal padre, Amenemhat I, generale dell’esercito, infatti nel momento dell’assassinio del padre si trovava sul fronte libico impegnato contro le tribù di Tjemehu e Tjehenu.

Si pensa che al suo ritorno in patria Sesotri I abbia vendicato la morte del padre, riportando così pace e stabilità all’interno del regno.

Con questo faraone l’Egitto potè contare su un re forte, determinato, dal fisico possente e dai tratti decisi. Abbiamo idea del suo aspetto grazie ai numerosi ritratti che ci sono pervenuti.

Sesostri I con dio Ptah
Sesostri I con dio Ptah
Le statue del Medio Regno meglio conservate sono proprio quelle di Sesostri I che, assieme a quelle di Sesostri III, costituiscono il maggior nucleo di opere scultoree a noi pervenute di quest’epoca storica.

Possiamo così anche conoscere i cambiamenti dell’aspetto di Sesotri I nel corso degli anni. Ci sono statue che lo ritraggono da giovane, dal fisico energico; poi adulto dalla presenza possente ed autoritaria, e infine anziano, con i lineamenti appesantiti, ma in cui si intuisce ancora una grande energia.

Sesostri I Cappella Bianca
Cappella Bianca
85 pensiero su “SESOSTRI I”
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    Maurizio Damiano
    Autore dell’opera della Fabbri (e di altri 25 volumi e più di 500 articoli su riviste; saccheggiate pure, ma non attribuitevi meriti che non avete: ne guadagnate in onestà, correttezza e immagine).

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