Tadrart Acacus,

Nel Wadi Sughd, in prossimità di una delle rare pozze di raccolta dell’acqua piovana, nascoste nei meandri dell’Acacus si trova una parete di roccia levigata dal vento.

Su questa parete generazioni di Tuareg hanno lasciato messaggi alle carovane che sarebbero transitate di lì dopo di loro.

Alcuni messaggi sono disegnati il gesso, altri incisi con un punteruoli tracciati in tifinagh, la versione scritta del tamasheq la lingua tuareg.

Ma quella parete è solo il prologo di una storia che ha più di diecimila anni.

Una storia narrata dagli innumerevoli siti ricchi di dipinti ed incisioni di Tadrart Acacus, la catena montuosa che si estende per duecentocinquanta chilometri nella regione sud-occidentale della Libia sino all’ Algeria.

Le pitture e le incisioni più recenti risalgono a 2000-3000 anni fa, il periodo chiamato “camelino” a causa della preponderanza dei dromedari tra i soggetti ritratti.

Nel periodo precedente, tra i 3000 e i 4000 anni fa, la desertificazione era già in fase avanzata, ma nell’Acacus c’erano ancora vaste oasi e le distanze tra una e l’altra potevano essere coperte dai cavalli.

In quell’ epoca chiamata “cavallino”, gli uomini disegnavano ed incidevano quadrupedi e figure umane, spesso su strani carri.

Ancor prima, tra gli 8000 e i 4000 anni fa, la civiltà sahariana era pastorale e parzialmente sedentaria.

I disegni realizzati in questo lasso di tempo, sono incisi con la tecnica della martellatura o dipinti con ocra rossa, ossido di ferro e altre sostante minerali,

Ritraggono mandrie di bovini e scene umane che testimoniano una società organizzata e un relativo benessere che aveva favorito l’espressione artistica.

Uno dei siti più belli della prima età pastorale è il Wan Amil, nel sud dell’Acacus, dove vi è descritta la battaglia tra due fazioni contrassegnate da copricapi rossi e gialli.

Accanto si trova una scena che è stata interpretata come un matrimonio celebrato per sancire la pace.

Ma è nella fase ancora più primitiva, 9000 8000 anni fa, detta della “delle teste rotonde”, che la civiltà sahariana ha lasciato le tracce più interessanti con i primi segnali magici.

Era il tempo in cui l’uomo prese coscienza della sua forza rispetto agli altri esseri viventi e concepì l’idea del divino.

Hanno infatti una valenza sacra le grandi figure antropomorfe che si trovano negli anfratti di Wan Tabu e Wan Amillal.

Diecimila anni fa il Sahara era verde e popolato da mammiferi come giraffe, elefanti e soprattutto bufali della specie estinta Bubalus Antiqus, soggetto dominante delle pitture più antiche.

Sebbene già descritta nel V secolo a.C. da Erodoto, l’arte rupestre sahariana è rimasta praticamente sconosciuta fino alla metà dell’Ottocento.

Fu grazie all’esploratore tedesco H. Barth che prese il via un’opera di studio e catalogazione che continua ancor oggi.

126 pensiero su “TADRAT ACACUS”
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