Nell’Antico Egitto vi erano due tipi di templi: le dimore degli dei e i templi funerari costruiti per il culto del Faraone dopo la morte che nel Nuovo Regno presero il nome di “Castelli di milioni di anni”.
Quando il Faraone moriva diventava Osiride e dalla sua sopravvivenza eterna dipendeva l’armonia dell’Egitto.
Per questo motivo prima della piramide, che racchiuderà nel futuro la salma del sovrano, veniva costruito un tempo funerario nel quale cinque statue che raffiguravano il Faraone, venivano costantemente purificate. Ogni giorno venivano inoltre deposte offerte su un altare vicino ad una “falsa porta” che permetteva al defunto faraone di passare dal mondo dei morti a quello dei vivi per nutrirsi.
Durante la III Dinastia un complesso funerario situato nella piana di Saqqara aveva celebrato i giubilei del faraone Djoser, tuttavia le costruzioni sembravano essere erette per un esercito di ombre piuttosto che per dei dipendenti che avevano il compito di occuparsi quotidianamente del complesso.
Dagli inizi della IV Dinastia le costruzioni ricoprirono vari ettari a Dashur e soprattutto a Giza.
Alcuni documenti pervenuti dalla V Dinastia ci informano sull’economia di queste fondazioni, sulla vita nei templi e sul personale che ne aveva cura e quale era il posto che occupavano rispetto all’economia del Paese.
Sostenute dalle proprietà funerarie del faraone, tramite la Residenza ed il Tempio Solare, le entrate in viveri e stoffa servivano per le necessità del sovrano dopo la sua morte, ma allo stesso tempo anche per nutrire i numerosi addetti del complesso funerario.
Cosa comprendeva il cerimoniale quotidiano?
Un servizio effettuato due volte al giorno che corrispondeva ai due pasti terreni del sovrano defunto. La pulizia delle sue cinque statue, la lettura dei rituali, diverse purificazioni, la cura dell’edificio e la redazione degli atti di archivio.
Il personale era diviso in cinque gruppi diretti da cinque capi che si alternavano secondo tabelle specifiche.
Ogni gruppo era diviso in due settori composti da circa venti persone con due responsabili. Si aggiungevano poi i sacerdoti, gli artigiani, i parrucchieri, i vasai, i cuochi, i lavandai, i facchini, i medici ed i cantori così da costituire un totale di circa trecento persone.
Nelle cappelle delle tombe circostanti questi complessi funerari, un gran numero di persone assicuravano offerte per i cortigiani, gli alti funzionari e le loro famiglie spesso provenienti dal tempio vicino.
A Tebe i templi funerari Ramessidi erano una sorta di compromesso tra i templi dell’Antico e del Medio Regno e i templi divini.
Comprendevano un palazzo di dimensioni ridotte indispensabile per le cerimonie dei giubilei e altre che si svolgevano nel recinto sacro; furono importanti centri economici come il Ramesseum, e amministrativi come Medinet Habu.
Anche i templi divini erano il cuore di molteplici competenze, gli archivi locali e i testi incisi sulle pareti ne conservano varie testimonianze.
Le cerimonie avevano il compito di onorare le divinità più importanti del luogo su cui sorgeva il tempio e ricalcavano un rituale simile a quello che assicurava la sopravvivenza del faraone defunto. La stanza del sovrano era sostituita dalla stanza dei dio, racchiusa nel punto più interno del tempio, in un naos di cui le porte potevano essere aperte solo da sacerdoti qualificati.
Era loro compito prendersi cura della statua del dio che veniva vestita, ornata, incensata e alla quale venivano offerti cibi freschi e saporiti accompagnati dalla recitazione di un rituale divino giornaliero.
Oltre agli obblighi quotidiani assolti dai vari officianti, altri lavori essenziali richiedevano qualità intellettiva e arte: la ricopiatura e la redazione dei libri sacri che si effettuava nella Casa di Vita.
Analoghi agli scriptoria delle abbazie medioevali, formavano generazioni di scribi che si esercitavano a riprodurre le composizioni del passato, a redigere nuovi documenti e a ricercare negli archivi ricette medicinali e magiche. Non lontano in un laboratorio altri specialisti inventano profumi, unguenti e prodotti di bellezza.
Poco distante, ma lontano da questo mondo di magia e sapere, si trovavano gli uffici e i magazzini. Compito degli uffici era principalmente gestire gli interessi della proprietà divina, tenere la contabilità dei raccolti e del bestiame, dei prodotti delle spedizioni, delle concessioni minerarie e dei bottini che i sovrani riportavano dalle campagne militari.
67 pensiero su “I TEMPLI FUNERARI e le CASE della VITA”
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