Battaglia di Bouvines

Siamo all’inizio del 1200.

Il Sacro Romano Impero attraversa una profonda crisi. Papa Innocenzo III, che appoggia Federico II di Sicilia come candidato al trono, ha scomunicato Ottone IV di Brunswich.

Ottone può contare sulla fedeltà di alcuni feudatari tedeschi e dell’alleanza con l’Inghilterra di Giovanni senza Terra, mentre Federico II annovera tra i suoi alleati i comuni guelfi in Italia, numerosi principi in Germania e Filippo II di Francia.

La battaglia ebbe luogo di Domenica, il che contravveniva alla “Tregua di Dio”.

Per “tregua di Dio” s’intende un periodo di sospensione da tutte le attività belliche, imposto dall’autorità ecclesiastica.

La codificazione definitiva verrà sancita nel concilio di Arles (1037) e da quel momento sarà di fatto vietato combattere dal venerdì sera al lunedì mattina, in altri casi dal mercoledì sera con tregue durante le fasi di liturgia cristiana come il Natale, l’Avvento o la Pasqua.

La Francia viene attaccata dalle forze anglo-imperiali su due fronti.

A La Rochelle dagli inglesi e dalle Fiandre dai tedeschi. Filippo dopo aver respinto gli inglesi in Aquitania, si prepara ad affrontare la coalizione presso il villaggio di Bouvines.

E’ il 27 luglio e Ottone, con la speranza di risolvere la battaglia senza dover schierare le proprie forze, a sorpresa attacca la retroguardia avversaria che non solo respinge l’attacco, ma obbliga gli imperiali a schierarsi per lo scontro.

Guerino di Senlis e il conte di Saint- Pol con centocinquanta cavalieri francesi attaccano la fanteria fiamminga, mentre il duca di Borgogna carica le truppe di Ferrante conte di Fiandra che viene catturato.

I picchieri imperiali si scontrano con la cavalleria francese riuscendo a disarcionare Filippo, senza che ne riporti conseguenze, ma sono subito sopraffatti.

Il fianco destro imperiale è rimasto sguarnito e la cavalleria francese lancia l’attacco catturando il comandante Guglielmo duca di Salislury.

La fanteria di Ottone IV disposta sul fianco destro dopo un estenuante combattimento è costretta ad arrendersi.

Al centro la cavalleria francese dopo aver sconfitto i cavalieri imperiali costringono lo stesso imperatore a fuggire,

Nonostante la superiorità numerica della fanteria imperiale è una disfatta totale per Ottone IV, che si darà alla fuga.

Molti nobili imperiali saranno catturati e le insegne di guerra portare a Parigi.

Con la vittoria in questa battaglia il re di Francia acquisì il predominio su quello che in seguito sarebbe diventato il territorio francese che non avrebbe corso pericoli reali fino alla Guerra dei Cent’anni.

Ottone IV invece, sconfitto sia sul campo da Filippo II sia politicamente dal papa, abdicò in favore di Federico II di Svevia e fu costretto a cedere l’impero.

303 pensiero su “BATTAGLIA DI BOUVINES”
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