Carlo Magno

Carlo Magno (742-814) fu il più grande sovrano del Medioevo, energico e di vedute moderne, in pochi decenni cambiò il volto dell’Europa.

Accorso in sostegno di Papa Adriano I, strinse in un lungo assedio Desiderio, ultimo re dei Longobardi, costringendolo alla resa nel 774.

Preparò varie spedizioni in Spagna contro gli Arabi per rafforzare il confine franco.

Condusse lunghe e dure battaglie contro i Sassoni e i Bavari, assoggettando tutto il territorio dell’odierna Germania.

Si spinse ancora più oltre, contro i Danesi e gli Avari, che abitavano l’odierna Ungheria.

Alla fine dell’VIII secolo, il regno di Carlo Magno si estendeva dai Pirenei fino all’Elba e al Danubio, dal Mare del Nord all’Adriatico.

Carlo Magno pose fine all’epoca dei regni barbarici.

Si chiuse così il periodo cosiddetto del Primo Medioevo e iniziò un secondo periodo detto Alto Medioevo.

Divise il territorio conquistato in vaste regioni, chiamate marche e ducati, governate da un margravio (o marchese) e da un duca, e in territori minori chiamate contee governate da un conte.

Organizzò, inoltre, l’amministrazione del suo Impero, mettendo propri rappresentanti come funzionari, e sorvegliandone l’operato attraverso una rete di ispettori chiamati missi dominici.

Carlo Magno si spostava inoltre con la sua Corte da un capo all’altro del territorio conquistato,

Negli ultimi anni della sua vita scelse come residenza Aquisgrana, ma non creò mai una vera e propria capitale.

Sotto di lui l’Europa cominciò a risollevarsi dalla miseria e dall’ignoranza, infatti Carlo Magno volle che sorgessero dovunque scuole.

Storici, grammatici, studiosi della lingua latina, da lui protetti, anticiparono quel fervore per gli studi che caratterizzò poi la civiltà del Rinascimento.

Carlo Magno dette anche grande impulso all’agricoltura, al commercio. Per facilitare il traffico nel grande Impero costruì ponti e strade e organizzò la navigazione sui grandi fiumi europei.

I re scozzesi e anglosassoni riconobbero la sua autorità nell’Europa occidentale e in Italia, anche l’imperatore bizantino gli rese omaggio e persino il califfo di Bagdad gli inviò doni.

Il riconoscimento più importante gli fu dato dalla Chiesa

Papa Leone III riconobbe il lui il protettore della fede cristiana e nella notte di Natale dell’800 lo incoronò imperatore di tutto il territorio che aveva conquistato e che fu chiamato “Sacro Romano Impero”.

Carlo Magno
Sacro Romano Impero
Carlo Magno non dette mai leggi uguali ai popoli che sottometteva

Le leggi, che si chiamavano capitolari, erano presentate da Carlo Magno in un’assemblea di nobili, discusse e poi approvate dall’Imperatore.

Furono rispettati gli usi e le antiche istituzioni dei vari popoli: cosa che rese possibile la formazione dei vari Stati europei, già delineatasi all’indomani della morte di Carlo Magno

101 pensieri riguardo “CARLO MAGNO

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