Chiesa e credenze

Intorno all’anno Mille le strutture materiali e sociali dell’Occidente subirono una profonda trasformazione,.

Il potere laico e quello ecclesiastico, nonostante la loro rivalità, concorrevano nello stabilire uno nuovo ordine sociale.

L’evento più importante di questo periodo è la nascita del villaggio che porterà i suoi tratti rurali sino ai giorni nostri.

Il villaggio tradizionale era composto da abitazioni, piccole coltivazioni, una chiesa e un cimitero posti al centro di un terreno che confinava con altri terreni dove sorgevano altri villaggi.

In genere un villaggio, o un gruppo di villaggi, era dominato dal signore del castello, l’aumento della forza-lavoro e l’espansione dei terreni coltivati permisero ai principali detentori del potere e della terra di dividere il profitto con un accresciuto numero di guerrieri fedeli.

Nel corso dell’epoca feudale la nobiltà incarnò un’insieme di valori, ideali e miti che hanno pesato sulla cultura medievale più del suo reale potere e dell’influenza politica.

Ora a questa ristretta aristocrazia laica non restava altro che ottenere la legittimità del proprio lignaggio, del proprio nome dalla Chiesa.

E dove trovare la fonte della legittimità se non nella cultura folcloristica, nei racconti mitici e nelle leggende locali?

Chiesa e credenze

Così, per imprimere alle tradizioni orali il sigillo della durata, assunsero dei chierici capaci di riportare per iscritto queste tradizioni.

Ovviamente con un’interpretazione che differiva dalla Chiesa, dove i chierici abitualmente vedevano solo superstizioni, il pericolo del paganesimo e le illusioni perpetrate dal demonio.

Per esempio le fate, dalle quali molti nobili pretendevano di discendere, erano ridotte a demoni solo nella cultura ecclesiastica, mentre per il popolo erano ottime madri, madrine generose e amanti sollecite.

La rinascita delle città permise a nuove classi sociali legate al commercio e all’artigianato di potersi affermare e il nuovo modello di vita portò valori diversi da quelli della cultura tradizionale rurale.

Tuttavia alla base della cultura cittadina rimasero abitudini di pensiero, credenze e leggende, e visto che la cultura cittadina non poteva nascere dal nulla ecco riaffiorare miti di fondazione, riti e nuove funzioni nella vita pubblica dell’intera città.

Queste trasformazioni ebbero il merito di far vacillare il potere tradizionale della Chiesa, anche se la ricchezza materiale rimaneva considerevole, così come l’influenza politica dei vescovi sul re.

Non ci volle molto tempo ai chierici, che da sempre avevano avuto le funzioni di tracciare le linee dell’ordine sociale, per rendersi conto quanto il loro sapere era distante dalla realtà.

Indebolita dalla trasformazione del tempo alla Chiesa non rimase altro che “infiltrarsi” nelle città e per la prima volta si trovò costretta ad interessarsi ai laici, senza più vedere in loro una massa rozza e ignorante

Chiesa e spettri
Chiesa e Credenze
Medioevo e Inferno

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