MEDIOEVO

Comuni

Tra la fine dell’XI e l’inizio del XII secolo, gli abitanti delle città, spinti da una forte crescita demografica ed economica si organizzarono per governarsi da soli

In questo modo poterono far fronte in modo unitario alle pretese di chi li governava.

Nacque così il Comune.

All’inizio fu un’associazione pubblica composta da mercanti, artigiani, nobili ed ecclesiasti. Il Comunque non nacque con l’intento di impadronirsi del potere, ma fu creato allo scopo di difendersi e di elaborare forme più evolute di autogoverno.

Le città avevano uno statuto giuridico diverso da quello delle campagne dove viveva la maggioranza della popolazione.

In campagna, infatti, si stava affermando la signoria di banno. I contadini erano assoggettati al potere dei signori locali sino quasi ad essere privati della loro libertà.

Gli abitanti delle città, posti sotto la protezione imperiale e con il vescovo che svolgeva una funzione di supplenza del potere pubblico, potevano contare su una sorta di libertà.

La nascita del Comune rappresenta il momento in cui i cittadini, rivendicano il loro diritto di auto governarsi, riconoscendo al vescovo, soltanto una partecipazione al potere che nel tempo andrà scomparendo.

Ovviamente senza rifiutare all’imperatore l’obbedienza, il pagamento di determinate imposte e un’occasionale collaborazione militare,

Ovviamente il movimento comunale ebbe esiti diversi.

In Italia, il vescovo non volle intervenire, tanto più che la formazione dei comuni avvenne in un periodo di forte crisi ecclesiastica determinata dalla rivoluzione gregoriana e dalle lotte per le investiture.

Non mancarono scontri tra vescovo e cittadini. A Laon, in Francia, dove nel 1112 il vescovo fu ucciso per essersi opposto alla formazione del comune,

Quando il confronto si manifestò così aspramente, il Comune non riuscì ad ottenere la piena autonomia conseguita in Italia. Infatti nella quasi totalità dei luoghi a nord delle Alpi, il re intervenne imponendo un compromesso.

Ciò permise ai cittadini di fissare i propri obblighi e godere di alcuni privilegi, continuando tuttavia a sottostare all’autorità signorile.

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