Etruschi

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Gli Etruschi, popolo dall’origine incerta, abitavano le zone della Toscana e del Lazio settentrionale. Alcuni studiosi li identificano con i Tirreni giunti in Italia dall’Asia Minore, mentre secondo un’altra teoria proverebbero dall’Europa centrale.

Studi recenti proverebbero che il popolo etrusco si sia formato in Italia tramite l’unione delle genti abitanti tra l’Arno e il Tevere.

Grande potenza marina ebbero relazioni con tutti i grandi Paesi del Mediterraneo assimilando elementi diversi dalle varie civiltà che incontrarono.

Gli Etruschi erano organizzati in città-stato a carattere religioso:

Arezzo, Cere, Cortona, Chiusi, Perugia, Populonia, Tarquinia,Volsinii, Vetulonia, Volterra,Vulci, Veio governate dagli aristocratici con carattere ereditario.

Nel periodo della loro maggiore potenza raggiunsero a nord la pianura Padana, dove fondarono Felsina (Bologna), Marzabotto, Adria, Spina, Modena, Parma, Piacenza e Mantova. A sud si spinsero oltre il Tevere nella Campania fino al golfo di Salerno, dove incontrarono però la resistenza dei Sabini e dei Greci.

Ogni civiltà è destinata a terminare.

Non sempre è facile sapere quando finirà, per gli etruschi però non era così, infatti erano i primi a ritenersi destinati alla scomparsa.
Ciò si evince nei libri sacri raccolti nella disciplina etrusca, dove si legge, che l’Etruria durerà dieci secoli e che il periodo di transizione tra un secolo e l’altro sarà contrassegnato da un evento straordinario.

Secondo gli aruspici * l’epoca augustea sarebbe coincisa con l’ingresso nel decimo e ultimo secolo, quindi, la fine dell’Etruria si sarebbe verificata più o meno durante la metà del primo secolo dell’era cristiana.

In realtà è più giusto asserire che la prima grande civiltà nata nel territorio della penisola si spegne nel III secolo a.C., intorno al 265 – 264, quando l’ultima città etrusca ancora libera, Volsinii (Orvieto) fu conquistata dall’esercito romano comandato da Marco Fulvio Flacco.

A cadere non fu una città tra le tante, bensì la capitale politico-religiosa dell’Etruria.

Fortunatamente la perdita dell’indipendenza non coincise con la fine della civiltà dell’Etruria lo dimostrano, infatti, i tanti manufatti artistici prodotti fra il III e il I secolo a.C.

La lingua etrusca continuerà ad essere parlata e scritta, il latino la sostituirà lentamente e per gradi. Gli ultimi epitaffi in lingua etrusca risalgono alla metà del I secolo d.C.

Durante il regno di Augusto e quello di Claudio ci fu una sorta di ricostruzione archeologica della lega etrusca; all’atto dell’unificazione amministrativa della penisola Roma fa riferimento alla precedente esperienza.

Un tempo esisteva un magistrato superiore della federazione (zilath mechl rasnal) e da alcune iscrizioni possiamo conoscere alcuni “pretori ed edili dell’Etruria”, tra i quali persino l’imperatore Adriano.

Questa prima rinascita dell’Etruria è confermata da altri documenti:

:un bassorilievo di marmo scoperto a Cerveteri (il trono di Claudio) e le epigrafi latine di Tarquinia (gli Elogia).

Nello stesso periodo altre statue, come quella di Tarconte, il fondatore dell’Etruria delle dodici città, e iscrizioni, come quelle degli aruspici più celebri, ricordano ai cittadini di Tarquinia la grandezza reale del loro passato.

  • Aurispici: erano esperti nell’indovinare il futuro osservando le interiora delle vittime.
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