DOCUMENTI STORICI

Codice di Hammurabi

Il codice di Hammurabi si può considerare, uno dei codici più estesi di tutto il vicino Oriente, per questo è di grande interesse.

L’amministrazione della giustizia si basava su una serie di norme tramandate oralmente e consolidate dall’uso.

Il re di Babilonia, Hammurabi, ordinò verso la fine del suo regno che i suoi regali giudizi fossero incisi su stele alte più di due metri (sedici colonne da un lato della stele e 28 dall’altro), da esporre nei templi.

La stele meglio conservata fu ritrovata a Susa nel 1901.

Sulla parte di una stele è incisa una scena che rappresenta Hammurabi in preghiera, il resto della stele è coperto da fittissimi caratteri cuneiformi. Dalle stele si ricava che la società babilonese era divisa in tre classi: i nobili, i dipendenti del palazzo e i subordinati in genere e gli schiavi.

Il sistema penale sumero prevedeva delle pene pecunarie o il risarcimento in natura. Il Codice di Hammurabi comminava facilmente la morte (il colpevole poteva essere bruciato, impalato o annegato) e se si trattava di una vittima nobile, si applicava la legge del taglione.

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI:

L’esercito terribile
La fama di feroci dominatori non conosce rivali nella storia, una reputazione che oltre ad avere radici bibliche troviamo raccontata nei documenti assiri

Henry Rawlinson
Il padre dell’assirologia

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