MEDIOEVO

Jaquieri

E’ il nome attribuito alla rivolta contadina che scoppiò nella Francia settentrionale il 28 maggio 1358 e si concluse il 10 giugno dello stesso anno.

Per un istante parve assumere l’aspetto di un vasto movimento organizzato, prima di essere soffocata nel sangue dalla nobiltà. Il vocabolo nasce dal soprannome di Jacques Bonhomme dato dai nobili ai contadini e assunto come una sorta di parole d’ordine dei rivoltosi.

Dallo stesso soprannome deriva il termine jacque che indica un vestito corto e semplice che ricorda quello usato dai contadini durante le rivolte. Nella storiografia successiva lo si è impiegato come nome generico, per designare una rivolta contadina male organizzata e priva di obiettivi precisi. Ciò implica di per sé una giudizio a priori sul movimento del 1358 solo in parte confermato dalle fonti.

Sembra comunque assodato che non si trattò di una sommossa dovuta alla miseria, dato che scoppiò in una delle campagne più prospere d’Europa, e in un anno non particolarmente segnato dalla carestia,

Fra i ribelli non c’erano soltanto braccianti, ma anche contadini ricchi, con alla testa, in qualche caso, il prete del villaggio e con appoggi tra i borghesi delle città, prima fra tutte Parigi.

Benché sia difficile attribuire alla Jacquerie un carattere organizzato e un obiettivo politico ben definito, non c’è dubbio che si trattò essenzialmente di una rivolta antinobiliare.

Questa rivolta fu giustificata dal disprezzo in cui la nobiltà era caduta per le disfatte subite nelle battaglie di Crécy e Poitiers, e ispirata dal desiderio di liberarsi da uno sfruttamento signorile ulteriormente appesantito dalla guerra, se non addirittura di sterminare fisicamente tutti i nobili.

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