Diametro: 3476 km
Distanza dalla Terra: 384.000 km
Densità: 3/4 della Terra
Accelerazione di gravità: 1/6 della Terra
Tempo di rotazione e di rivoluzione: 27g 7h 43m 11,5s
Inclinazione dell’orbita: 5° circa
Massa: 1/81 della Terra
Temperatura: da 127° a -170° C

Mari: ampie distese di polveri finissime. Il più grande è il Mare Imbrium, largo 1200 km. Altri sono i Mari Crisium, Serenitatis e Tranquillitatis.

Montagne: le vette più alte si trovano nella catene di Leibnitz e Doerfel e raggiungono i 6100 m di altezza. Probabile origine vulcanica.

Crateri: originatesi in conseguenza dei violenti impatti di meteoriti e asteroidi che hanno bombardato la Luna nel corso delle prime fasi della sua formazione. Il Cratere più grande è il Bailly, con un diamertro di 295 km e una profondità di 3960 km.

Pianure, Scarpate e Canali di origine vulcanica.

Si osserva un’ Eclissi di Sole quando la Luna si trova sulla congiungente Terra-Sole.

L’ Eclissi può essere parziale se la Luna non si trova esattamente sulla congiungente e il disco solare è oscurato solo in parte. Totale, quando il disco solare è coperto completamente da quello lunare, in questo caso il cielo diventa buio.

Una Eclissi totale non è visibile da ogni luogo della superficie terrestre ma solo in una ristretta fascia, chiamata zona di totalità, larga al massimo tra i 200 e i 300 km e che riguarda località differenti nelle diverse Eclissi.

Può anche accadere che, per una particolare combinazione delle distanze, il disco lunare non copra esattamente il disco solare, lasciando visibile solo un bordo luminoso, in questo caso si parla di Eclissi Anulare.

Si osserva, invece, un’ Eclissi di Luna, parziale o totale, quando la Luna, in fase di Plenilunio, entra più o meno completamente nel cono d’ombra della Terra.

Dalla Terra è visibile poco più del 50% della superficie lunare. Nel corso di un mese Sinodico (29g12h44m3s) o Lunare il nostro satellite mostra un ciclo di fasi dovute alla posizione che esso occupa sia rispetto alla Terra, sia rispetto al Sole che lo illumina rendendolo visibile.

Nella fase di Plenilunio, la Luna si trova dalla parte opposta al Sole rispetto alla Terra, e ci rivolge l’intero emisfero illuminato.

Nella fase di Novilunio, la Luna si trova tra la Terra e il Sole e la faccia che essa ci rivolge, non essendo illuminata, appare oscura.

Durante la fase di Primo Quarto la Luna, la Terra e il Sole formano un triangolo rettangolo ideale e solo metà della superficie illuminata è visibile dalla Terra.

Nell’ultima fase, Ultimo Quarto, la Luna, la Terra e il Sole formano nuovamente un triangolo rettangolo ideale. Ora è visibile l’altra metà della superficie illuminata.

Sull’origine della Luna sono state avanzate diverse teorie, ma tre sono le più accreditate:

• la teoria della fissione: la Luna si sarebbe staccata dalla Terra primordiale;
• la teoria della cattura: la Luna vagante nello spazio sarebbe stata catturata dall’attrazione gravitazionale terrestre;
• la teoria dell’accrescimento: la Luna si sarebbe formata dall’aggregazione di frammenti, particelle e polveri che già orbitavano attorno alla Terra.

a cura di Cristina Tartaglino

Le influenze della luna sull’essere umano

Iside: meditazione lunare

Luna: simbologia

Lilith e la luna nera: la luna in astrologia

110 pensiero su “LUNA”
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