Misteri e Celebrazioni
Trasporto di una barca processuale

Si attribuisce questo nome ad alcune feste che, da una parte, prevedevano delle manifestazioni pubbliche di commemorazione riferite alle gesta degli dei, dall’altra implicavano riti da celebrarsi nel segreto dei templi.

Generalmente i misteri erano consacrati alla passione di Osiride, alla ricerca di Iside e soprattutto alle lotte tra Horo e Seth.

Le notizie di cui disponiamo circa i misteri sono state tramandate da autori greci, primo tra tutti Erodoto che, pur mostrando sempre prudenza di fronte all’argomento divino, ci offre numerosi elementi interessanti:

”Su questo lago (vicino al tempio di Neith a Sais) durante la notte, gli egizi davano luogo a rappresentazioni in cui erano mimati accadimenti reali che essi chiamano misteri.
Io li conosco e so tutto quanto li concerne, ma un silenzio religioso deve velare queste cose”.

A Busiris veniva innalzato il pilastro Djed, si immolava un bue accompagnato da varie offerte che erano poi consumate dalla folla.

Per la celebrazione della commemorazione della ricerca di Osiride da parte di Iside, da tutto l’Egitto intere famiglie giungevano a Bubastis;.

Gli uomini suonavano il flauto e le donne cantavano accompagnandosi con il battito delle mani, quindi si celebravano dei sacrifici bevendo vino a volontà

A Sais si teneva invece la feste delle lampade: per tutta la notte si accendevano torce per ogni via della città, con questa commemorazione si ricordavano gli episodi salienti della passione di Osiride.

A Papremis, città consacrata a Seth, la statua del dio era condotta in processione su un carro e poi riportata verso il suo tempio dove dei sacerdoti armati di bastoni le impedivano l’ingresso.

Il popolo accorreva allora in aiuto di Seth e ingaggiava una battaglia simulata con il clero che doveva commemorare un mito secondo il quale il dio non potendo rientrare nella dimora di sua madre, perché respinto da alcuni servi, andava a cercare rinforzi per buttar giù la porta.

Ad Ombos, città sacra a Seth, avveniva un analogo combattimento celebrativo contro gli abitanti di Dendera, città consacrata ad Hathor qui assimilata a Iside.
Ad Abido una processione alla cui testa vi era il dio Upuat, “apritore della via”, colui che accompagnò Horo nelle sue peripezie contro Seth, si scontrava con i sethaniani che le impedivano l’ingresso al santuario.

Alla fine, il corteo dei fedeli riusciva a forzare il blocco dopo una rituale battaglia.

Anche la morte di Osiride e la sua resurrezione conoscevano una riproduzione rituale, la resurrezione in particolare era resa con la rappresentazione del ritorno del dio su di una barca sacra.
Questi miti erano mimati, o comunque recitati, da attori professionisti durante particolari rappresentazioni che avvenivano nei templi.

L’origine del termine “mistero” è tutt’ora incerto, può essere riferita al verbo greco muéo (istruisco, inizio), mentre, nel Lessico di Suida è fatto derivare da mein to stoma (chiudere la bocca).

Il termine iniziatico egizio è reso con bes sheta e si tratta dell’ideogramma bes, rappresentato da un pesce munito di un paio di gambe umane che riunisce in sé i significati di introdurre e iniziare, oltre ad esprimere il nome di dio Bes, il Guardiano della Soglia.

Iside: i culti misterici
I misteri Eleusini

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