Because the world had been created by the vital power of the universe, the eternal spirit, had to return, when his course on earth was over, to order and harmony.
Both the sacred story that lets Osiris die and born again, as the daily actions of the sun-god who at sunset is overwhelmed by darkness but the day after triumphantly resurrects, represent for the Egyptians the guarantee of faith in the survival of the soul after death. Nevertheless, to let this happen, the soul needed that the body should not be corrupted or dispersed. In the most ancient times, a real life after death was considered the pharaoh’s privilege and the subjects hoped that someway the pharaoh’s immortality should reflect upon them. Later, at the end of the Ancient Reign, survival became a right for all those who had a tomb and could afford the funeral rituals.
The first preservation of human remains in Egypt must have been casual. In the cemeteries of the pre-dynastic epoch, which were not very deep pits where the dead person was put in the fetal position, the very hot and dry climate, dried naturally the bodies, but it’s not known if survival in the other world was strictly connected to their preservation. When the bodies began to be put in tombs with artificial coverings, initially they were wrapped in linen bandages and covered with compressed plaster and smoothed to let it have the shape of the body underneath; when the plaster was dry, the external shell was painted (often in green, the color of rebirth) and to the face the dead person’s features were given. During the Middle Reign the technique for the mummification improved and it reached its best and definite results in the New Reign. There were, in a late epoch, also useless attempts to give back to the body its natural characteristics with stuffing of linen and other materials, but the decomposition of these supports caused right what the embalmers tried to avoid. There are no illustrations nor inscriptions that inform us about the mummifying procedure. Erodoto’s description of it appears rather reliable. Erodoto describes three different kinds of mummification that had different prices:
Simple washing and purifying, an injection of corrosive liquids
The embalmers fill their syringes with citron oil and they fill the dead person’s abdomen with it, without making any incision, simply injecting the liquid through the anus and making sure it didn’t come out. Then they embalm the body for the days prescribed. The last day, they let all the oil they had injected come out; this oil is so strong that it takes with it all the insides and the intestine from under, so at the end only skin and bones are left.

Incision and extraction of the organs

It foresaw, through an incision on the abdomen, the extraction of the intestines, of the stomach, of the liver and the lungs. The abdomen was cleaned with palm wine and toasted spices, then the abdomen was filled with pure grinded myrrh, cassia, and other spices. The extracted bowels were put in a case, divided inside in four parts with covers in the shape of human heads. Later they used the canopy vases which always had four heads: in the ramesses period, they represented Horus’s four children. Daumutef, the vase with the head of a jackal, held the stomach; Quebehsemut, the hawk, kept the intestine; in the vase with a human head, Ismet’s one, there was the liver and in Hapi’s one, with the head of a baboom, the lungs were kept. The canopy were often made of lime and put inside the tombs in a proper chest. The kidneys, often considered the place of emotions, and the heart, that the dead person needed to be judged, were put back in the empty body. Even the brain was removed through an incision on the skull or through the nostrils with hooks and substituted by a metal cap. The bowels were embalmed like the body and wrapped separately in bandages. The body was then put under mounds of dry natron, a natural salt that was abundant in the bed of the dried lake in the Western Delta (the Wadi el-Natrun of today); natron is essentially composed by sodium chloride and it has a high percentage (17%) of sodium bicarbonate, indispensable for the success of the procedure. This salt absorbed the liquids in the body that, after 70 days became a solid shell that didn’t go into decomposition. When the mummy was ready it was purified and the priest wrapped it in bandages. Linen bandages were used, often the same ones they had in their house; only for the pharaohs, his relatives and for the high dignitaries bandages woven purposely were used. First the limbs and articulations were wrapped and then the whole body; the arms were wrapped around the body and the legs were put together. While they put the various layers of linen, some amulets were also put in precise places and the priest recited the formulas to assure the efficacy of the procedure. Often, after the bandaging, a mask was put on the dead person’s face: of silver and gold for the kings, of painted paper-pulp, that is papyrus and linen mixed with plaster, for the lower classes

MummificationThe mummy was then put in a painted anthropoid coffin, sometimes put inside other ones; for the higher social classes and for the kings even a rectangular stone sarcophagus was used. During the bandaging, the placing of the coffin and the burial, a lot of precious ointments and perfumes were poured, which then formed that characteristic hard substance similar to pitch. The mummy inside the coffin and with a baldachin above that represented the sky and the stars, was brought on a sled toward the tomb. A funeral procession followed it with food and drinks, furniture and personal objects to furnish the funeral chambers, while the woman uttered funeral laments. At the entrance of the tomb there was the so-called “opening of the mouth” ceremony; the coffin was vertically lifted, so a priest could gently touch, with a miniature carpenter’s ax, the points that correspond to the eyes, to the nose, to the lips, to the ears, to the hands and to the feet as if to lift the wood and let the senses function. The ritual sentence was .” My mouth is open! My mouth is split by god Shu (god of the air) with that metal spear that he used to open the gods’ mouths. I am the Powerful One. I will sit besides she who is in the great breath of the sky.” (Book of the Dead, Formula 23). The coffin was then put down in the tomb and around it they put the funeral objects. At this point the entrance was sealed with rocks and mud. On the western hills in Luxor an oval mark was impressed on the plaster, with Anubi laying on nine tied prisoners, and often among the rocks some terracotta cones were inserted with the names and the titles of the dead.


49 pensiero su “Mummification”
  1. I think this is one of the most important information for me.
    And i am glad reading your article. But wanna remark
    on few general things, The site style is perfect, the articles is really excellent : D.

    Good job, cheers

  2. I have been browsing online greater than 3 hours these days, but I by no means discovered any fascinating article like yours.
    It is pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all web owners and
    bloggers made just right content material as you did, the net will be a lot more useful than ever before.

  3. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you, However I am having problems with your RSS.
    I don’t know the reason why I cannot join it. Is there anybody else getting the same
    RSS problems? Anybody who knows the answer can you kindly respond?


  4. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all folks you really know what
    you are speaking about! Bookmarked. Kindly also seek advice
    from my site =). We could have a hyperlink exchange agreement among us

  5. I’m now not certain the place you’re getting your info, but great topic.
    I needs to spend some time finding out more or understanding more.
    Thank you for magnificent information I used to be
    looking for this information for my mission.

  6. Hello there! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could find a captcha plugin for my comment form?
    I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  7. Excellent blog! Do you have any tips and hints for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you advise starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There
    are so many choices out there that I’m completely overwhelmed
    .. Any tips? Thanks a lot!

  8. Spot on with this write-up, I honestly think this site needs far more
    attention. I’ll probably be back again to read more, thanks for the

  9. I’m not sure where you are getting your information, but great topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more.
    Thanks for wonderful info I was looking for this info for
    my mission.

  10. Have you ever thought about adding a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is fundamental and everything. However think
    about if you added some great photos or video clips to give your posts
    more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and video clips, this blog could certainly be one of the best in its field.
    Very good blog!

  11. When someone writes an post he/she maintains the thought of a user in his/her mind
    that how a user can be aware of it. Therefore that’s why this article is outstdanding.

  12. Somebody necessarily lend a hand to make seriously posts I would
    state. That is the first time I frequented your web page and so far?
    I amazed with the analysis you made to create this particular put up extraordinary.
    Magnificent job!

  13. Hi I am so happy I found your website, I really found you by accident, while I was looking on Askjeeve for something else, Anyways I am here now and would just like to say many
    thanks for a remarkable post and a all round enjoyable blog (I
    also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to browse it all at the moment but I have saved it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have
    time I will be back to read much more, Please do
    keep up the excellent work.

  14. I’m extremely impressed together with your writing skills and also with the layout on your weblog.
    Is that this a paid subject or did you customize it your
    self? Anyway keep up the nice high quality writing, it’s uncommon to look a great
    blog like this one today..

  15. Does your website have a contact page? I’m having problems locating it but, I’d
    like to send you an e-mail. I’ve got some recommendations for your blog you might be interested in hearing.
    Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it grow
    over time.

  16. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as
    with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid
    theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing,
    it’s rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays.

  17. Hey there, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog site in Firefox, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, amazing blog!

    Here is my homepage :: coupon

  18. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you happen to
    be a great author.I will be sure to bookmark your blog and
    may come back later on. I want to encourage continue your great writing, have a nice holiday weekend!

  19. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a
    great blog like this one nowadays.

  20. I’ve been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or blog posts in this
    sort of house . Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this web site.
    Studying this information So i’m happy to exhibit that I’ve a very good
    uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed.
    I most definitely will make certain to do not forget this website and give it a glance regularly.

  21. We are a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community.
    Your website provided us with valuable information to work on. You
    have done an impressive job and our entire community will be grateful to you.

    My webpage – 2022

  22. Today, while I was at work, my sister stole my iphone and
    tested to see if it can survive a 25 foot drop, just so she
    can be a youtube sensation. My apple ipad is now destroyed and she has 83 views.
    I know this is totally off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  23. My spouse and I stumbled over here by a different website and thought
    I should check things out. I like what I see so now i’m following you.
    Look forward to going over your web page for
    a second time.

  24. Your style is really unique compared to other people I’ve read stuff from. Thanks for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I’ll just book mark this blog.

  25. It’s really a nice and useful piece of info. I’m happy that you shared this useful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  26. I will immediately snatch your rss as I can not to find your email subscription link or e-newsletter service.Do you have any? Please permit me know in order that I could subscribe.Thanks.

  27. Generally I do not read article on blogs, however I would liketo say that this write-up very compelled meto try and do it! Your writing taste has been surprised me.Thanks, very nice article.

  28. I really like reading through a post that can make men and women think.Also, thank you for allowing for me to comment!Check out my blog Rapid Fire Keto Review

  29. That is a very good tip especially to those new to the blogosphere. Short but very accurate information… Appreciate your sharing this one. A must read article!

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *