COME SI DIVENTAVA SPARTANI ?

GRECIA ANTICA

Come si diventava spartani?
Leonida

Coraggio, disciplina e sacrificio, queste sono le doti che associamo agli Spartani. Tuttavia sovente storia e leggenda si intrecciano tra di loro e diventa difficile porre una linea tra il mito e la realtà.

Alla fine del V secolo, Sparta, dopo una serie di guerre culminate con la sconfitta di Atene, diventò la potenza dominante delle città-stato greche.

Conquistò la supremazia a discapito dell’arte, della cultura e della filosofia concentrandosi unicamente sulla costruzione di un’incomparabile macchina militare.

Per ottenere questo bisognava che ogni cittadino osservasse un rigido sistema di vita. Le famiglie che detenevano il potere politico avevano pieni diritti di cittadinanza ed erano tutte guidate da militari con una storia di duro addestramento e disciplina alle spalle.

Questi erano i veri Spartani.

I non cittadini, i poveri, i senza terra, gli iloti non avevano che pochissimi diritti e nessuna influenza sulle decisioni delle società.

Le classi dirigenti governavano la città-stato come un campo militare in perenne assetto di guerra, dove mantenevano un alto grado di parietà.

Il loro pensiero era distante da ogni forma di ostentazione di ricchezza, persino le monete non erano d’oro o d’argento, ma semplici pezzi di ferro.

Nella vita degli spartani al primo posto veniva il dovere verso lo stato. Legami di famiglia ed esigenze personali erano di second’ordine e questo iniziava già dalla nascita. I neonati di entrambi i sessi subivano il controllo di un gruppo di magistrati, i quali avevano il potere di far esporre, cosa che significava morte sicura per assideramento, chiunque fosse malato, debole o deforme.

I bambini che superavano quest’esame, verso gli otto anni lasciavano la famiglia per sottoporsi all’addestramento militare e all’istruzione di Stato.

Era concesso solo un minimo di cibo, possedevano un solo indumento che indossavano in ogni stagione. Dormivano sopra un sottile giaciglio di giunchi posato sulla terra, inoltre dovevavo affrontare continue prove di resistenza e obbedienza.

Queste prove comprendevano anche la fustigazione, sotto la quale molti ragazzi morivano stoicamente, senza mostra segni di debolezza.

Venivano incoraggiare a rubare il cibo, non per migliorare la loro misera dieta, ma per mettere alla prova il loro spirito d’iniziativa. Ogni ragazzo colto sul fatto veniva fustigato, non per aver rubato, ma per essersi fatto sorprendere.

Gli Spartani adulti dovevano essere perennemente pronti alla guerra, quando non combattevano passavano buona parte del loro tempo cimentandosi in gare d’atletica e nella caccia.

Termopili 480 a.C.
C’era solo un modo per l’alleanza ellenica per fermare l’invasione dei Persiani

KRYPTEIA

Kryptia
La krypteia era un‘iniziazione militare rivolta ad un’elite di futuri guerrieri spartani.

L’addestramento durava un anno durante il quale l’iniziato doveva vivere nel più totale isolamento, come un lupo. Era lasciato solo a contatto con la natura, nudo e senza cibo, l’unica arma in suo possesso era un coltello.

”Ciò a cui è obbligato il kryptes è vivere per qualche tempo l’esistenza del lupo. Il comportamento che gli viene richiesto è quello dell’animale, il modo di attaccare quello tipico della fiera”.

Solo dopo essere diventato lupo nell’intimo in seguito all’anno di kripteia, il giovane entrava a far parte della società dei guerrieri adulti.

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI
Il lupo – Simbologia

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