CINA

Tien Anmen

Uno dei più grandi spazi pubblici all’interno della città di Pechino, fu teatro di un massacro durante una protesta studentesca. Tutto iniziò il 22 aprile 1989 durante il funerale dell’ex segretario generale del Partito Comunista Hu Yaobang.

Cacciato il 16 gennaio 1987 da Deng Xiaoping per il suo appoggio ai cortei studenteschi, era morto una settimana prima e come si usava in Cina, Tien Anmen era la cornice di un complicato cerimoniale per onorarne la memoria. I giornali e la televisione, annunciarono che il 22 aprile la piazza sarebbe rimasta chiusa al traffico per consentire le esequie ufficiali.

Durante la notte gli studenti di Pechino occuparono la piazza salendo sul grande monumento degli Eroi del Popolo

Sono circa 100.000 giovani che organizzano una contro manifestazione e portando un grande ritratto di Hu-Yaobang, gridano: “Viva la democrazia, abbasso la corruzione”.

Una delegazione tenta invano di consegnare una petizione al Parlamento Cinese, dove sono riuniti circa 4.000 uomini politici per l’ultimo saluto a Hu. Lo stesso giorno a Xian e a Changsha, cinquemila studenti aggrediscono con pietre i poliziotti, dando fuoco ad auto e uffici e buttando giù il muro di cinta della sede del Partito e del Municipio.

Novanta persone, tra cui operai, studenti e contadini vengono arrestati.

Il 24 aprile gli studenti universitari della capitale, decidono di disertare le lezioni fino a quando il governo non accetterà di discutere le loro richieste: moralizzazione della vita pubblica, democrazia, eliminazione del nepotismo e di tutti gli affaristi che si arricchiscono alle spalle del Partito. Durante la notte il Partito riunisce i membri dell’Ufficio Politico e in un documento scritto da Deng Xiaoping e letto da Li Peng, con toni duri si dice che, in realtà, gli studenti vogliono mutare la faccia della Cina, affossare il socialismo per ripristinare un regime borghese

Il 26 giugno la radio trasmette un durissimo editoriale di Deng: ”Una minoranza del popolo ha usato l’opportunità dei funerali per creare disordini, attaccare il Partito e i leader dello Stato, avvelenando le menti delle masse. Nelle Università sono state create delle organizzazioni illegali”.

Il 27 aprile la risposta degli studenti. Cinquantamila persone sfilano per dodici ore nelle strade di Pechino. Il partito non reagisce.

Il 4 maggio cinquecento giornalisti pechinesi si aggiungono agli studenti, chiedono libertà di stampa. Il 14 maggio è attesto l’arrivo di Gorbaciov per un incontro che dovrà chiudere una disputa che ha diviso il comunismo mondiale per trent’anni. Piazza Tien Anmen deve essere addobbata con fiori e bandiere, è qui che i capi di stato stranieri ricevono gli onori, ma la piazza è occupata!

Tremila studenti iniziano uno sciopero della fame ad oltranza. Il presidente sovietico deve rivoluzionare il programma, niente sfilata sulla piazza.

Il 16 maggio Zhao Ziyang presenta un documento nel quale fa proprie le richieste degli studenti. Il documento è respinto e il giorno dopo l’Ufficio Politico al completo, decide di sollevare Zhao da ogni carica. Il 19 maggio, verso le due di notte, Zhao si reca sulla piazza insieme al ministro Li Peng, i due devono fingere di essere uniti, così vuole il Partito. Ma mentre Li peng se va, Zhao Ziyang, tra le lacrime, dice che non è più segretario, che è già stato tutto deciso e che su di loro sta per abbattersi un ciclone sanguinoso.

Il 20 maggio Li Peng proclama la legge marziale, il giorno dopo alcuni elicotteri militari lanciano milioni di manifestini per avvisare i pechinesi.

La televisione e la radio trasmettono continuamente un comunicato nel quale si afferma che i soldati hanno il compito di adottare misure efficaci per porre fine al disordine. I militari accampati alla periferia di Pechino rimangono immobili, è chiaro che il regime sta preparando il paese all’idea dell’intervento duro.
Gli studenti ancora non capiscono che il potere politico si è ricomposto ed è deciso ad agire con durezza e il 27 maggio, Lu Xiang, uno dei capi della protesta dichiara che si prosegue ad oltranza fino a che Li Peng non sarà cacciato e la legge marziale revocata. E’ quello che il governo vuole.

Il 1° giugno viene vietato ai giornalisti stranieri di intervistare i cinesi, di osservare i movimenti dei soldati e di aggirarsi nella piazza in cerca di notizie.

Tre giugno. La mezzanotte è passata da poco.

Un primo tentativo d’ intervento militare viene sventato dalle vedette degli studenti. La gente attacca con i sassi i militari e decine di loro sono costretti a rifugiarsi persino nel Parlamento. I soldati iniziano a lanciare i lacrimogeni e quando rimangono imbottigliati dalla folla, cominciano a picchiare selvaggiamente con i manganelli. Tre ciclisti sono uccisi da una jeep dell’esercito: sono i primi morti della rivolta di Tien Anmen.

Quattro giugno.

Sono le tre di mattina e Pechino si risveglia con il clamore dei carri armati che si dirigono verso la piazza. Tutto è spazzato via, migliaia di soldati accerchiano la piazza sparando raffiche di mitra. Spari isolati e rastrellamenti proseguono per quattro o cinque giorni.

Migliaia sono gli arrestati, molti condannati a morte, alcuni dirigenti studenteschi riusciranno a scappare e a rifugiarsi negli Stati Uniti e in Francia.

Il 9 giugno Deng appare alla televisione per la cerimonia in onore dell’Esercito Popolare di Liberazione che ha stroncato la rivolta di Tien Anmen.

Non si è mai saputo esattamente quante vittime ci siano state, alcune inchieste svolte da settimanali asiatici azzardano una cifra tra i 600 ed i 700 morti.
96 pensiero su “TIEN ANMEN”
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