IL PAESE DELLE STREGHE

STORIA DELLA STREGONERIA

Triora:il paese stregato

Inoltrandosi nella provincia di Imperia, lungo la statale 548 della valle Argentina, si trovano le indicazioni per raggiungere il piccolo borgo di Triora, annoverato tra i più belli d’Italia.

Sembra quasi impossibile che proprio in quelle zone, dove la quiete verde smeraldo dei boschi incontra la serenità azzurra del cielo, si sia sviluppata una delle più orrende persecuzioni nei confronti di presunte streghe, più di un secolo prima della follia di Salem (1691).

Nel 1587, a seguito di una carestia che perdurava quasi da due anni, si cominciò a sussurrare di streghe e fattucchiere o meglio, di baggiure e foitureire (come riportano i documenti di quel tempo). Di lì a poco s’innestò una vera e propria caccia che causò numerose vittime.

Triora
Esaminiamo la vicenda, con una sintesi cronologica degli eventi:

1585 Inizio della presunta Carestia.
Ottobre– Dicembre 1587Il Parlamento Locale, con l’approvazione del Podestà e del Consiglio degli Anziani, fa avviare un processo per stregoneria. Giungono a Triora un magistrato inviato da Genova e Girolamo del Pozzo, vicario del vescovo di Albenga.

In accordo con la tradizione del tempo, viene celebrata una messa invitando i presenti alla delazione.

Alcune abitazioni private vengono riconvertite a prigione, con tanto di inferriate alle finestre e vengono immediatamente incarcerate venti donne. Col passare delle settimane, tale numero sarà destinato a crescere enormemente.

I primi a morire tra i prigionieri sono Isotta Stella, a causa dei tormenti inflitti, e un’altra donna nel tentativo disperato di fuggire ai tormenti calandosi da una finestra senza grata.

Inizialmente, la furia inquisitoria si abbatte sulle reiette che vivono nella zona periferica della Ca’ Botina, ma successivamente anche alcune ‘matrone’ e nobildonne di Triora rimangono impigliate tra le maglie del processo.

A quel punto, il Consiglio degli Anziani comincia a mostrare dei dubbi sulle modalità adottate. A causa delle accuse che erano estese a tutti i ceti sociali, il processo non viene portato a termine. Intervengono sia il governo di Genova che Monsignor Luca Fieschi, vescovo di Albenga.

Del Pozzo riesce ad ottenere nuovamente l’avvallo del Monsignore e il Consiglio degli Anziani torna ad appoggiare l’inquisitore, forse a fronte anche di accordi per tutelare le nobildonne.

Triora - Cabotina

Gennaio 1588
L’inquisitore ed il magistrato lasciano Triora senza una conclusione effettiva dell’indagine. Il Parlamento locale incarica il notaio Basadonne di contattare Genova per una revisione del processo senza sortire risultati immediati.

Maggio 1588
Il padre inquisitore Alberto Fragarolo, su mandato ecclesiastico, giunge a Triora. Dopo alcuni interrogatori lascia il borgo, senza trovare una soluzione alla situazione creatasi.

Giugno 1588 – Marzo 1589
8 giugno. Il commissario speciale Giulio Scribani arriva a Triora. Intanto, il podestà Stefano Carrega viene sostituito da Gio Batta Lerice. La prima azione di Scribani, che negli atti si firma de Scribanis, è di inviare nelle carceri di Genova le 14 persone (13 donne e un uomo) che languivano nelle prigioni improvvisate di Triora.

Nel corso delle indagini e dei processi correlati, numerose persone muoiono a causa dei supplizi alle quali sono sottoposte, con un’impressionante impennata degli arresti.

Intanto, Scribani chiede l’autorizzazione per applicare diverse decine di condanne a morte. A questo punto il doge inizia ad avere delle perplessità sul modus operandi adottato. Chiede al commissario speciale di attenersi alle confessioni, corroborate da prove reali e inoppugnabili.

Tale richiesta viene però ignorata.

Conseguentemente, viene affidata la revisione del processo all’uditore Serafino Petrozzi. La prima cosa che rimarca è il fatto che Scribani si stia occupando di reati legati alla stregoneria e quindi di competenza dell’inquisizione. In ogni caso, conclude la relazione evitando una presa di posizione precisa, adducendo la delicatezza della situazione.

Genova invia i due giureconsulti Giuseppe Torre e Pietro Allaria Caracciolo per supportare Petrozzi nella revisione dei processi i quali però concordano con Scribani e convincono anche l’uditore.

In tal modo, vengono autorizzate le pene capitali previste (impiccagione e incenerimento dei corpi). L’intervento del padre Inquisitore di Genova fa in modo che i condannati vengano portati nella città, in quanto solo lui, come rappresentante della Chiesa, può giudicarli.

Triora
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Aprile- Agosto1589
28 aprile. Il cardinale Sauli e quello di Santa Severina ordinano di avviare la conclusione dei processi, con conferma definitiva il 28 agosto da parte del cardinale di Santa Caterina.

Sulla sorte delle streghe imprigionate e ancora vive, nonostante fossero state decimate dagli atroci supplizi, non ci sono informazioni certe. L’ipotesi più diffusa è che siano state liberate, sia a Genova che a Triora.

Da segnalare che l’inquisizione scomunica Scribani per essersi occupato di materie di esclusiva pertinenza ecclesiastica (verrà comunque annullata in data 15 agosto 1589 per diretto intervento del doge).

La cronologia sopra-riportata non è esaustiva ma intendevo semplicemente trasmettere il senso di grande confusione, di follia e di incertezza che aleggiava durante i processi, in cui i ruoli non erano definiti e dove la crudeltà dei singoli prevaricava il buonsenso.

Esaminando alcuni atti, notiamo che l’avvio ai processi fu dato da una carestia che si stava protraendo da due anni e che, necessariamente, doveva avere una sorgente diabolica.

Con ogni probabilità, invece, l’origine è da ricercarsi in alcune manovre speculative dei ricchi proprietari terrieri che avevano accumulato ma non rese disponibili le derrate alimentari, destinandole poi a Genova.

Triora
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Non è comunque da dimenticare che Triora sorge in una zona intrisa di mistero e magia. La chiesa della Collegiata sarebbe stata eretta sulle rovine di un ‘fanum’ pagano. Nelle vicinanze, al passo della Mezzaluna, si trova un menhir, a memoria di passati culti non cristiani.

E non è certo da sottovalutare che la tradizione di utilizzare alcuni rimedi naturali basati sull’erboristeria, abbia contribuito a dare spazio all’aberrazione della Ragione. E’ sempre stato più semplice condannare e distruggere, piuttosto che capire.

Credo che la Ca’ Botina sia ancora impregnata dall’energia psico-magnetica delle vittime della persecuzione. Come se il terrore provato, l’assoluta mancanza di speranza avvertita fossero ancora lì. Ed è indubbia la sensazione di disagio che avvolge come una densa bruma quando si transita davanti a quelle vecchie mura, all’imbrunire.

Triora

Una curiosità…

Il nome Triora deriva dal latino ‘Tria Ora’ (tre bocche) ed infatti lo stemma cittadino è Cerbero, il cane infernale, con le sue tre teste.

In realtà, il riferimento dovrebbe riguardare i tre fiumi che confluiscono sul territorio. Oppure i tre alimenti su cui in passato si basava l’economia e cioè grano, vite e castagna.

Gabriele Luzzini

112 pensiero su “TRIORA”
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