Crociate
Con il richiamo a tutti i cristiani, per liberare Gerusalemme, Urbano II nel 1095 proclamò la prima crociata.

Tutti, sovrani, nobili, soldati e popolani dovevano combattere insieme sotto l’insegna della croce e proprio per l’aver una croce dipinta sugli abiti, furono chiamati crociati.

I volontari furono tantissimi, non era solo la fede però a spingerli, ma anche motivi di interesse economico.

C’erano nobili senza terra e cavalieri che speravano di conquistare feudi e terre. Mercanti interessati a nuovi commerci, avventurieri in cerca di ricchezze, contadini e servi che speravano in una vita meno misera.

Questa prima crociata, guidata da Goffredo di Buglione, portò alla conquista di Gerusalemme (1099) e di tutta la costa, dalla Palestina fino al Libano.

Qui furono fondati molti regni cristiani, che furono assegnati ai maggiori condottieri e organizzati come regni feudali che durarono circa un secolo.

Poi caddero e la stessa Gerusalemme fu ripresa dai Turchi.

Le successive crociate non ebbero successo. Gerusalemme rimase così nelle mani dei musulmani, salvo che per un breve periodo e in virtù di un accordo diplomatico stipulato dall’imperatore Federico II (1194-1250).

Una delle crociate più importanti, tra le otto organizzate, fu la terza a cui parteciparono ben tre sovrani: l’imperatore Federico Barbarossa, che morì in combattimento, il re di Francia Filippo Augusto e il re d’Inghilterra Riccardo Cuor di Leone.

Crociate
Tra conquiste e inquisizione

Cronologia delle crociate

I Crociata
1097 – 1099 : i crociati conquistano Gerusalemme fondando gli Stati crociati d’Oriente.
La conquista di Gerusalemme

II Crociata
1147 – 1149 : fallisce il tentativo di riconquistare la Contea di Edessa, i crociati vengono sconfitti a Damasco dall’esercito turco.

III Crociata
1189 – 1192 : il sultano turco Saladino riconquista Gerusalemme, i crociati riescono solo a creare il regno di Cipro

IV Crociata
1202 – 1204 : i crociati non arrivano a Gerusalemme ma si limitano ad assediare e a saccheggiare Costantinopoli, viene costituito un debole impero latino d’Oriente.

V Crociata
1217 – 1221 : non venne ottenuto nessun risultato

VI Crociata
1228 – 1229 : grazie ad un accordo con il sultano d’Egitto, Federico II ottiene la liberazione dei luoghi santi per circa un decennio.

VII Crociata
1248 – 1254 : Luigi IX il Santo viene sconfitto e catturato dai Turchi.

VIII Crociata
1270 : Luigi IX, appena giunto nell’Africa settentrionale muore di peste

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