CROCIATE TRA CONQUISTE E INQUISIZIONE

Crociate: tra conquiste e inquisizione

Le tre spedizioni indette tra la fine del secolo XI e la fine del XII per la riconquista della Terra Santa furono episodi a se stanti non riconducibili a un unico disegno.

Solo agli inizi del XIII secolo, con il pontificato di Innocenzo III, l’idea di crociata diventò un tema dottrinale, privo tuttavia di un’ideologia pienamente coerente.

Le Crociate furono indette come tentativo di ricondurre alla cristianità tutti i territori che le erano appartenuti, quindi non solo la Terrasanta, ma anche l’impero bizantino che in seguito allo scisma del 1054 si era definitivamente allontanato.

La quarta crociata (1202 – 1204) fu un sovrapporsi d’istanze papali, progetti militari e interessi economici. Questi erano talmente forti da far sì che lungo il percorso i crociati cambiassero il loro obiettivo, dimenticando Gerusalemme e sottraendo Costantinopoli ad altri cristiani.

Fu un saccheggio violento e feroce, come già era accaduto per Gerusalemme e altre città della Palestina.

Nei territori balcanici e in parte di quelli anatolici dell’impero bizantino fu creato il nuovo impero latino d’Oriente, destinato a sopravvivere per circa un sessantennio.

Negli stessi anni le crociate divennero un mezzo per reprimere i nemici della cristianità, anche all’interno della cristianità stessa, a essere perseguitati per primi furono gli “eretici”.

Fu proprio Innocenzo III che indisse nel 1208 una crociata contro i catari della Francia meridionale.

Il loro radicamento in questa regione era favorito dall’appoggio politico del conte di Tolosa che faceva leva sull’eresia catara per rafforzare la sua autonomia dal re di Francia.

Contro i catari tolosani, rei di aver ucciso un legato pontificio, e contro il conte, che li avrebbe difesi, fu scatenata la crociata da Innocenzo III, il quale estese a tutti quelli che vi parteciparono gli stessi vantaggi spirituali concessi a chi combatteva in Terrasanta.

Il Sud della Francia divenne teatro di scontri violentissimi, durati circa un ventennio. Nel corso di questo ventennio il desiderio papale di controllare la cristianità si fuse con quello del re di Francia di estendere il suo potere su tutti i territori del regno.

L’intento delle crociate non era solo quello di riconquistare i territori della cristianità, ma anche di estendere i confini.

A questo scopo, furono indette, nel XIII secolo, le cosiddette “Crociate del Nord”, che miravano alla sottomissione di popoli pagani quali i Balti, i Livorni e i Lettoni.

Le spedizioni militari furono condotte dai cavalieri dell’Ordine teutonico, che crearono un vero e proprio stato crociato.

Mentre era in corso la lotta contro gli albigesi, Innocenzo III si fece promotore anche della quinta crociata (1217- 1221), alla quale tuttavia non presero parte i principali sovrani d’occidente, impegnati a dirimere difficili questioni all’interno de loro regni.

Obiettivo della V crociata era l’Egitto, considerato un paese strategico, una volta assoggettato, per organizzare la conquista dei territori attorno a Gerusalemme.

Anche in questo caso furono soprattutto i contrasti interni al movimento crociato a far fallire l’iniziativa.

Dopo pochi anni fu Federico II a condurre un’altra spedizione, già scomunicato dal papa Gregorio IX per non aver affrontato l’impresa l’anno prima.

Dopo una lunga trattativa con il sultano Al- Kamil, Federico riuscì a riottenere Gerusalemme. Durante tale trattativa furono trovate soluzioni per garantire a cristiani e musulmani un reciproco riconoscimento.

Ovviamente la soluzione non fu accolta favorevolmente dal papa e così nel giro di pochi anni Gerusalemme tornò sotto il controllo musulmano.

Le ultime due crociate verso il Medio Oriente (1248-1254 e 1270) videro un unico protagonista: re Luigi IX di Francia.

Mosso da una profonda e inquieta religiosità, egli si pose alla guida di due spedizioni entrambe fallimentari.

Durante la prima il re fu catturato mentre si trovava in Egitto, durante la seconda morì di malaria appena sbarcato a Tunisi.

Con la morte di Luigi IX il progetto di riconquistare Gerusalemme fu definitivamente abbandonato.

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI

L’inquisizione

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