SECONDA GUERRA MONDIALE

Eccidi delle Foibe

Gli eccidi delle foibe si verificarono durante la seconda guerra mondiale e nell’immediato dopoguerra. I responsabili dei massacri furono i partigiani jugoslavi e il Dipartimento per la Protezione del Popolo, facente parte dei servizi segreti militari jugoslavi.

Cosa sono le foibe?
Foibe

Le foibe sono dei grandi inghiottitoi tipici della regione carsica e dell’Istria che spesso hanno dimensioni enormi. In Istria se ne contano circa 1700.

Chi furono le vittime?

Le prime vittime furono carabinieri, poliziotti e guardie di finanza, i militari fascisti della RSI e i collaborazionisti che non erano riusciti a scappare.

Come venivano uccisi?

Legati l’un l’altro con un lungo fil di ferro stretto ai polsi, venivano fatti schierare sugli argini delle foibe. Con alcune raffiche di mitra uccidevano i primi tre o quattro della catena, i quali, precipitando trascinavano con sé gli altri, condannati a sopravvivere per giorni sui cadaveri dei loro compagni, tra sofferenze inimmaginabili.

Come si arrivò agli eccidi delle foibe?

Siamo nel 1943 e dopo tre anni di guerra, cade il regime di Mussolini. Le conseguenze sono lo scioglimento del partito fascista, la resa dell’8 settembre e la disgregazione delle Forze Armate italiane.

Nel frattempo in Croazia e Slovenia, le due regioni balcaniche confinanti con l’Italia, le forze comuniste di Tito avevano sconfitto gli “ustascia”, i fascisti croati, e i “domobranzi”. Quest’ultimi non erano fascisti, ma ragazzi sloveni chiamati alle armi da Lubiana a partire dal 1940.

8 settembre 1943: viene firmato l’armistizio ed esplode la prima ondata di violenza e vendetta.

In Istria e in Dalmazia i partigiani di Tito si vendicano contro i fascisti che, nell’intervallo tra le due guerre, hanno amministrato questi territori imponendo un’italianizzazione forzata, reprimendo le popolazioni slave locali.
I fascisti e gli italiani non comunisti, considerati nemici del popolo, sono prima torturati e poi gettati nelle foibe. Moriranno circa un migliaio di persone.

Sono le prime vittime di una lunga scia di sangue.
Tito inizia la sua battaglia di riconquista di Slovenia e Croazia, che erano state annesse al Terzo Reich. Nelle sue mire non ci sono solo la Dalmazia e la penisola d’Istria, ma anche il Veneto fino all’Isonzo.

Fino alla fine di aprile del 1945 i partigiani jugoslavi erano stati tenuti a freno dai tedeschi che avevano dominato Serbia, Croazia e Slovenia con stragi, rappresaglie e paesi distrutti. Con il crollo del Terzo Reich nulla ormai poteva più fermare gli jugoslavi.

Tito
L’obbiettivo di Tito? Occupare i territori italiani.

Nella primavera del 1945 l’esercito jugoslavo occupò l’Istria e puntò verso Trieste, per riconquistare i territori che, alla fine della prima guerra mondiale, erano stati negati alla Jugoslavia. Tito non aveva però fatto i conti con le truppe alleate che stanno avanzando dal sud dell’Italia, dopo aver superato la Linea Gotica.

Gli jugoslavi s’impadronirono di Fiume e di tutta l’Istria interna dando subito inizio a feroci esecuzioni contro gli italiani. Non riuscirono però a prendere Trieste, grazie alla Divisione Neozelandese del generale Freyberg che entrò nei sobborghi occidentali della città ancora in mano ai tedeschi. Asserragliati nella fortezza di San Giusto, questi, si arresero impedendo a Tito di prendere Trieste.

Si scatena la rabbia degli uomini di Tito.

Tra maggio e giugno del 1945 migliaia di italiani dell’Istria, di Fiume e della Dalmazia sono obbligati a lasciare la loro terra. Altri vengono uccisi dai partigiani di Tito, gettati nelle foibe o deportati nei campi sloveni e croati.
Non si ha una stima certa delle vittime, secondo alcune fonti furono tra le quattromila e le seimila, per altre diecimila.

Nel dicembre 1945 Alcide De Gasperi presentò agli Alleati una lista di 2.500 deportati dalle truppe jugoslave nella Venezia Giulia e 7.500 persone scomparse.

In realtà le cifre furono, purtroppo, molto più alte.

Almeno ventimila italiani furono uccisi nel periodo 1943 – 1947 e circa duecentocinquantamila furono gli esuli.

86 pensiero su “GLI ECCIDI DELLE FOIBE”
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