MITOLOGIA GRECA

Misteri Eleusini

Un’esperienza di morte e rinascita, celebrata nel più gran segreto.

Nell’Antica Grecia gli dei e le dee del pantheon controllavano le forze della natura. Venerati nei santuari e nei templi con preghiere e sacrifici vegliavano sulla quotidianità dei mortali.

Parallelamente a questa religione ufficiale, esistevano altri culti mistici, spesso relativi alla fertilità, risalenti a prima dell’epoca classica.


I più celebrati erano i Misteri Eleusini, tenuti molto segreti visto il rischio di condanna a morte per chi fosse stato scoperto a spiarne i riti inoltre, l’adepto che ne avesse rivelato i segreti, poteva subire la confisca dei beni.
Gli iniziati erano talmente motivati a rispettare il loro giuramento, in cambio della vita eterna, che tutt’ora molti di questi misteri restano tali.

Gli studiosi hanno ricostruito un quadro frammentario dei Misteri Eleusini grazie a qualche riferimento, spesso indiretto, letto nei testi antichi e agli scavi che hanno riportato alla luce il grande santuario di Eleusi.

Nel tempio di Demetra (il Telesterio), gli archeologi hanno rinvenuto sculture e dipinti su vasi che illustrano alcuni riti.

Il rituale si ispirava alle vicende della dea Demetra e di sua figlia Persefone , rapita da Plutone, dio degli Inferi.

Grazie all’intervento di Zeus, Persefone potè ritornare al mondo per otto mesi all’anno, ma negli altri quattro doveva rimanere nell’oltretomba. Il mito simboleggia la semina e la nascita di messi nuove: morte e resurrezione

Le celebrazioni si svolgevano in tre fasi: la prima, Piccoli Misteri, avveniva al principio di febbraio ed aveva il compito di purificare gli iniziati, spesso venivano sacrificati montoni e maiali.

Nel periodo settembre-ottobre avveniva la seconda, il Grande Mistero, dove gli iniziati, chiamati mistoi, partivano da Atene per Eleusi, per prelevare alcuni oggetti sacri, richiesti nelle cerimonie, facevano ritorno il giorno dopo percorrendo la Via Sacra.

I Misti, che indifferentemente potevano essere uomini o donne e persino schiavi, si riuniva il terzo giorno.

Il gran Sacerdote, il gerofante, che presiedeva ai misteri domandava:

”C’è qualcuno tra i presenti che non abbia le mani pulite?
C’è qualcuno qui la cui voce non possa essere compresa?
C’è qualcuno colpevole di assassinio o di sacrilegio o che si sia dato alla magia nera?
Se c’è, si allontani da noi”.

Venivano controllate le credenziali dei misti, i quali poi ricevevano i giuramenti di segretezza e raccoglievano gli oboli dovuti. A questo punto iniziavano il digiuno.

Il quinto giorno erano celebrate cerimonie in onore di Dionisio ed Esculapio, il sesto veniva preparata una bevanda sacra il kikeon un miscuglio di malto e di un tipo di menta, conosciuta anche come “menta romana”.
Il settimo giorno, cominciava la parte principale della cerimonia, quando i misti partivano in processione per Eleusi, seguiti dai cittadini di Atene.

Ad Eleusi, i riti misterici, venivano celebrati durante le “notti mistiche”, una processione alla luce delle torce, simboleggiava il viaggio attraverso l’oltretomba.

L’ultima notte dei Misteri corrispondeva alla terza e ultima fase del rito, ed era la contemplazione, la “epopteia”.

Un grande braciere illuminava la notte, il gerofante pregava:
“Un sacro figlio generò la Signora, la Forte generò un forte”. Questo significava che Persefone, dea dei morti e moglie di Ade, aveva partorito un figlio simbolo della resurrezione e della rinascita. Il rito produceva nei misti una sorta d’ ipnosi, forse dovuta al digiuno, e all’ebbrezza data dalla bevanda sacra.

I Misteri Eleusini furono soppressi dall’Imperatore Teodosio il Grande, nel 395 d.C.

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI

Culti misterici di Iside
Misteri e celebrazioni nell’antico Egitto

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