Martin Lutero

Martin Lutero (1483-1546) era un monaco tedesco, professore all’università di Wittenberg.

Indignato da alcuni prelati romani, che avevano venduto illecitamente delle indulgenze (macchiandosi del peccato di simonia,) non si limitò a criticare i preti corrotti, ma si mise addirittura contro il Papa e la Chiesa di Roma.

Negò anche i dogmi della religione cattolica.

Sostenne per esempio che i Sacramenti non avevano alcun valore. In sostanza predicò una nuova dottrina che teneva conto solo degli insegnamenti contenuti nella Bibbia.

Lutero oltre ad essere un uomo molto intelligente era colto e battagliero. Con le sue predicazioni e i suoi scritti riuscì a convincere sia uomini colti sia poveri contadini. In Germania ebbe subito numerosi seguaci: erano molti coloro che da tempo erano ostili alla Chiesa di Roma.

Inoltre parecchi feudatari erano desiderosi di indipendenza e ostili all’imperatore Carlo V, fervente cattolico. In un primo tempo l’imperatore cercò di convincere Lutero a riconciliarsi con il Papa. Lutero ormai forte dell’appoggio dei principi tedeschi rifiutò sdegnosamente.

La controversia religiosa divenne lotta politica.

Lutero, messo al bando da Carlo V, trovò protezione in Sassonia dal Principe Federico. Potè così liberamente capeggiare il movimento della Riforma fino alla morte (1546)

Nel 1525 la Prussia adottò come religione la sua dottrina facendo scoppiare la guerra in tutti i paesi Tedeschi.

Carlo V cercò di soffocare il movimento della Riforma con numerose e sanguinose battaglie. Nel 1529, alla Dieta di Spira, i Luterani presero per la prima volta il nome di Protestanti e così si chiamano ancora oggi i numerosi seguaci della religione luterana.

Ben presto la riforma si diffuse anche in Danimarca, Svezia, Norvegia, Finlandia, ma soprattutto in Svizzera, in Francia ed in Inghilterra.

In Svizzera le idee di Lutero furono portate avanti da Giovanni Calvino. Egli predicò una dottrina molto più rigida e severa, il Calvinismo che si diffuse anche fuori dalla Svizzera. I suoi seguaci si chiamarono Ugonotti in Francia, Puritani in Inghilterra e Presbiteriani i Scozia e numerose persecuzioni.

In Inghilterra si verificò un grave scisma.

Il re Enrico VIII Tudor, infatti non avendo avuto la concessione dal Papa di poter ripudiare la propria moglie Caterina d’Aragona per poter sposare Anna Bolena, si mise in aperto contrasto con il Pontefice. Non solo sposò Anna Bolena, ma separò dalla Chiesa di Roma quella inglese. Si fece proclamare dal Parlamento unico e supremo capo della Chiesa Anglicana con diritto di nominare i propri vescovi (Atto di supremazia 1534).

Dopo varie battaglie, Carlo V concedette la libertà di culto ai Protestanti (pace di Augusta 1555) non però ai Calvinisti.

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