STORIA DELLE RELIGIONI

Papi e Imperatori
Ottone I di Sassonia

Deposto Carlo il Grosso, i feudatari del Sacro Romano Impero, continuarono ad eleggere i re dei regni di Francia, Germania e Italia e a nominare un imperatore.

Quando Ottone I della Casa di Sassonia divenne imperatore (936-973) le cose cambiarono.

Per prima cosa restituì l’unità all’Impero e riunì sotto di sé i regni di Germania e d’Italia. Per limitare il potere dei feudatari, concesse grandi autorità ai Vescovi, nominandoli conti e dando loro l’investitura delle città dove risiedevano.

I suoi successori, però, opponendosi ai Papi si appropriarono del diritto di nominare personalmente i Vescovi. Diedero così il via alla “lotta per le Investiture” (1076-1122), scoppiata tra papa Gregorio VII e l’imperatore Enrico IV della Casa di Franconia (successa alla Casa di Sassonia).

Pose fine alla lotta il concordato di Worms (1122), stipulato tra papa Callisto II e l’imperatore Enrico V, in cui si concordava che i Vescovi avrebbero avuto una doppia investitura: religiosa dal papa e politica dall’imperatore.

Nei secoli a venire Papi ed Imperatori furono spesso in lotta tra di loro.

Allo stesso tempo i feudatari e le città d’Italia e di Germania avevano conquistato una maggiore indipendenza.

Papi e Imperatori - Barbarossa
Federico Barbarossa

Quando la corona imperiale, quella di Germania e Italia, passò alla Casa di Svevia, i Comuni italiani appoggiati dal Papa, difesero la propria libertà contro l’imperatore Federico Barbarossa, il quale più volte attaccò l’Italia. Tuttavia alla fine con la pace di Costanza (1183) dovette concedere ai Comuni italiani la piena autonomia.

Papi e Imperatori - - Federico II
Federico II
Particolarmente aspre furono le fra i Papi e Federico II di Svevia.

Figlio di Costanza d’Altavilla e di Enrico VI della Casa di Svevia, ancora giovane salì al trono del Regno delle Due Sicilie. In un primo tempo papa Innocenzo III l’appoggiò. Arrivò a nominarlo imperatore contro il volere dei grandi feudatari tedeschi, che volevano fosse nominato Ottone IV di Brunswick.

La contesa divenne internazionale, l’Inghilterra (governata da Giovanni Senza Terra) si pose al fianco di Ottone, la Francia si schierò con il Papa e Federico II.

Alla fine, Filippo Augusto, re di Francia, ottenne la vittoria nella battaglia di Bouvines (1214) in seguito alla quale Federico II venne riconosciuto re di Germania, d’Italia e di Sicilia e imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero.

Subito dopo i suoi rapporti con il Papa cambiarono.

Infatti Federico II non mantenne la promessa fatta a papa Innocenzo III che gli chiedeva in cambio del titolo di Imperatore, di rinunciare alle corone di re d’ Italia e di Sicilia.

Nuovamente scoppiarono numerose lotte, che videro schierati contro l’Imperatore i Comuni italiani e le truppe del papa. Quando Federico morì, gli successe Corrado IV, ma anche lui morì giovane lasciando il regno al piccolo Corradino.

Per risolvere le ostilità con il Regno delle Due Sicilie, il pontefice francese Clemente IV, chiese aiuto a Carlo d’Angiò, fratello del re di Francia Luigi IX, che vinto prima Manfredi, zio di Corradino (1266) ed infine anche Corradino si installò sul trono del Regno delle Due Sicilie, dando origine alla dominazione angioina.

Ben presto il malcontento dei sudditi si fece sentire.

La rivolta iniziata a Paleremo il lunedì di Pasqua del 1282 ( i Vespri Siciliani) si stesa rapidamente in tutto il Regno.

I ribelli chiesero aiuto a Pietro III d’Aragona, re della Spagna settentrionale. La rivoluzione si trasformò così in una guerra tra Aragonesi e Angioini che durò per vent’anni (1282-1302).

Alla fine la Sicilia passo definitivamente agli Aragonesi, mentre il regno di Napoli rimase agli Angioini.

Negli anni l’espansione degli Aragonesi nel Mediterraneo crebbe con la conquista della Sardegna (1327) e del regno di Napoli (1442).

Fino al XIII secolo, la storia dell’Europa gravitò intorno al Sacro Romano Impero e al Papato. Quando Papi ed Imperatori cessarono di essere in pace fra di loro, ambedue persero buona parte della loro autorità.

Il Papato si trovò alla testa di tutta l’Europa durante le Crociate, soprattutto con papa Innocenzo II (1198-1216).

Dopo di lui salirono al soglio pontificio alcuni papi che commisero vari errori nel campo politico, tanto che nel 1305 la sede pontificia da Roma fu trasferita in Francia, ad Avignone, dove rimase fino al 1377

157 pensiero su “PAPI E IMPERATORI”
  1. I absolutely love your site.. Excellent colors & theme.
    Did you develop this site yourself? Please reply back as I’m planning to
    create my own personal site and would like to find out
    where you got this from or what the theme is named. Kudos!

  2. After looking at a number of the articles on your web page, I seriously
    like your technique of writing a blog. I bookmarked it to my bookmark website
    list and will be checking back in the near future. Please visit my website as well and let me know what you think.

    Look at my website; 39.100.90.4

  3. A lot of thanks for all of the efforts on this website. Debby loves making
    time for investigation and it’s obvious why. A number of us hear
    all regarding the powerful method you offer both interesting
    and useful techniques on your website and in addition inspire response from
    other people about this issue so our simple princess is undoubtedly studying so much.
    Take pleasure in the remaining portion of the year. You’re conducting
    a great job.

    My site bbs.yunweishidai.com

  4. Today, while I was at work, my sister stole my iPad and
    tested to see if it can survive a 40 foot drop, just so she
    can be a youtube sensation. My apple ipad is now broken and she has 83 views.
    I know this is totally off topic but I had to
    share it with someone!

    My webpage … craksracing.com

  5. That is really interesting, You are an overly professional blogger.
    I have joined your rss feed and sit up for searching for more of your great post.
    Also, I have shared your site in my social networks!

    Here is my web site: Teresa

  6. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you
    hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to create my own blog and
    would like to find out where u got this from. thanks a lot

  7. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing,
    it’s rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays.

    Feel free to surf to my site :: Stark Max Keto Pills – 163.30.42.16,

  8. Genuinely no matter if someone doesn’t be aware of afterward its
    up to other viewers that they will assist, so here it takes place.

    my site … Slim Now Keto Pills (Christi)

  9. I think that is one of the such a lot important info for me.
    And i am glad studying your article. But wanna commentary on few common issues,
    The website taste is great, the articles is in reality
    nice :D. Excellent process, cheers.

    my web page :: La Velours Serum Review – forum.adm-tolka.ru

  10. I’m really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s
    rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.

    Look into my web site – Stark Max Keto Ingredients; rueangseaw.com,

  11. I was just looking for this info for a while. After 6 hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your site.
    I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this kind of
    informative sites in top of the list. Normally the top sites are full of
    garbage.

    Feel free to visit my homepage – One Shot Max Keto Reviews, forum.adm-tolka.ru,

  12. I in addition to my guys were going through the great
    points from your web site then then I got an awful feeling I never expressed respect to the website owner for them.
    All the boys happened to be for that reason very interested to
    read through all of them and already have in reality been using them.
    Thank you for being really helpful and for choosing this kind of magnificent
    issues most people are really desperate to discover.
    Our own sincere apologies for not saying thanks to earlier.

    Feel free to surf to my page: Green Country CBD Reviews (Candida)

  13. Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to tears at work so
    I decided to browse your site on my iphone during lunch break.

    I love the knowledge you provide here and
    can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised
    at how fast your blog loaded on my cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G ..
    Anyhow, very good blog!

    Here is my blog post: Keto Advantage Keto Burn Reviews –
    http://usedtiresbrowardcounty.com

  14. Hi my friend! I want to say that this article is awesome, great written and include almost
    all significant infos. I’d like to see more posts like this.

    my blog :: Vitalyze Pro Male Enhancement (kebe.top)

  15. Thanks so much for giving us an update on this matter on your website.
    Please be aware that if a completely new post becomes available or in the event any improvements occur about the current submission, I
    would consider reading more and understanding how
    to make good using of those methods you talk about.

    Thanks for your efforts and consideration of people by
    making your blog available.

    Also visit my website – One Shot Max Keto; http://www.dzzksd.com,

  16. Thanks so much with regard to giving us an update on this issue on your web page.
    Please realize that if a new post becomes available or in the event any variations occur
    on the current post, I would be thinking about reading more and learning how to make good use of those methods you share.
    Thanks for your time and consideration Greens Of
    Bliss CBD Review (grazebo.com) others by making your blog available.

  17. Εxceⅼlent wway off explaining, and god piece of writing to take
    data about my presentation subјect matter, ѡhich i
    am going to convey in academy.

  18. Someߋne necessarily lеnd a hand to mwke severely articles I might state.
    This is the very first time I fгequented yοur websife page and tⲟ this point?
    I surprised with the anaⅼysis you ade to create thgiѕ actual put up
    incredibⅼe. Fantastic task!

  19. Hi there, You have performed a great job. I’ll certainly digg it and in my opinion suggest to my
    friends. I’m sure they will be benefited from this site.

    Check out my web blog aniene.net

  20. After I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox
    and from now on each time a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the same
    comment. Is there a way you are able to remove me
    from that service? Thanks a lot!

    my homepage; Burst Audio Earbuds

  21. Wonderful article! That is the type of information that are supposed to be shared around the net.
    Shame on Google for now not positioning this put up upper!
    Come on over and discuss with my web site . Thanks =)

    My homepage – Slimingo Keto

  22. This design is steller! You definitely know how to keep a reader entertained.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog
    (well, almost…HaHa!) Excellent job. I really enjoyed what you had to say,
    and more than that, how you presented it. Too
    cool!

    Check out my web-site: PharmaLabs Keto Review

  23. 2005 4 strock yamaha outboard how to change oil, 2005 bmw 325i how often to change oil, 2005 bmw 325i how to reset the engine oil numbers.

  24. Что такое ZennoPoster?
    ZennoPoster – решение «всё в одном» для автоматизации SEO задач. Независимо от области SEO, он сохранит Вам много времени и денег.

    ZennoPoster программный комплекс для автоматизации Ваших действий в браузере. За считанные минуты Вы сможете автоматизировать любую работу в браузере, которую Вы привыкли выполнять вручную.

    Для использования ZennoPoster Вам не потребуются какие-либо специальные навыки и знания, это также просто, как конструктор Лего!

    Лучшие бэклинки!
    Большинство SEO софта на рынке ограничены базами и движками, на которых они обучены. С ZennoPoster вы сможете оставлять свои бэклинки там, где другие не могут это сделать! Самые хорошие ресурсы быстро меняют защиту. Пока другие днями и неделями ждут обновлений своего SEO-софта, Вы за несколько минут сможете восстановить работу своих ботов! После получения некоторого опыта вы сможете писать ботов, работающих не с одним, а сразу с многими похожими и не очень сайтами!

    http://www.td-gazovik.ru/
    [url=http://www.td-gazovik.ru/]http://www.td-gazovik.ru/[/url]
    1rrgXTxZOu7FkiGzkYKgQn5qA

  25. Obviously I like your web-site, however you have to test the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very bothersome to inform you. On the other hand I will surely come again again!

  26. Whoa! that information has been fairly effective thank you. “Instead of loving your enemies, treat your friends a little better.” by Edgar Watson Howe..

  27. This unique comment appears to get quite a few web page visitors. How should you market it? It also provides beneficial completely unique turn in tips. Man making a process huge perhaps comprehensive to specifics of is the central process.

  28. I would like to be a creative writing professor, but I can no find out exactly what they do. I love to write, and to help other people become better writers, so that is why I want to become a creative writing/english professor. Does this fit with the profession? What is the life of such a professor like?.

  29. I want to create a site where it’s a one stop shop for stories and articles on a particular subject….as long as I give credit to the author or source will I be ok, I will not steal original content, but rather gather it…is this legal?.

  30. You really make it appear so easy with your presentation however I to find this matter to be really something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely large for me. I’m having a look forward in your next put up, I’ll attempt to get the dangle of it!|

  31. Ahaa, its good conversation concerning this article at this place at this website, I have read all that, so now me also commenting here.|

  32. Hi there very nice web site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb .. I will bookmark your site and take the feeds also? I am glad to find numerous useful info right here within the publish, we need work out more strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .|

  33. Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Thanks, However I am experiencing issues with your RSS. I don’t know why I can’t join it. Is there anybody else having the same RSS problems? Anyone that knows the answer will you kindly respond? Thanx!!|

  34. I have read several excellent stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how a lot attempt you put to make any such magnificent informative web site.|

  35. My brother recommended I may like this blog. He was once totally right. This publish actually made my day. You cann’t imagine just how so much time I had spent for this info! Thank you!|

  36. It’s amazing to pay a quick visit this site and reading the views of all mates concerning this paragraph, while I am also zealous of getting knowledge.|

  37. Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other websites? I have a blog centered on the same subjects you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would enjoy your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e mail.|

  38. Today, while I was at work, my sister stole my iphone and tested to see if it can survive a 40 foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now broken and she has 83 views. I know this is entirely off topic but I had to share it with someone!|

  39. I used to be suggested this blog through my cousin. I am not sure whether or not this put up is written by him as no one else realize such designated approximately my trouble. You are amazing! Thanks!|

  40. If you are going for finest contents like I do, simply visit this site all the time since it presents quality contents, thanks|

  41. I used to be suggested this blog through my cousin. I amno longer positive whether or not this post is written through him as nobody else understand such unique about my trouble.You are wonderful! Thanks!

  42. My relatives all the time say that I am killing mytime here at net, however I know I am getting familiarity all thetime by reading such good articles or reviews.Feel free to visit my blog; healthy eating for kids

  43. Thanks for any other excellent article. The place else may just anyone get that kind of info in such a perfect method of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I’m at the search for such information.

  44. Thanks for another great post. Where else could anyone get that type of information in such an ideal way of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I am on the look for such information.

  45. Factor clearly regarded!.uc essay help essay on how to write an essay the best essay writing services

  46. I do agree with all of the ideas you’ve presented in your post. They’re really convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for beginners. Could you please extend them a little from next time? Thanks for the post.

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato.