Papi e Imperatori
Ottone I di Sassonia

Deposto Carlo il Grosso, i feudatari del Sacro Romano Impero, continuarono ad eleggere i re dei regni di Francia, Germania e Italia e a nominare un imperatore.

Quando Ottone I della Casa di Sassonia divenne imperatore (936-973) le cose cambiarono.

Per prima cosa restituì l’unità all’Impero e riunì sotto di sé i regni di Germania e d’Italia. Per limitare il potere dei feudatari, concesse grandi autorità ai Vescovi, nominandoli conti e dando loro l’investitura delle città dove risiedevano.

I suoi successori, però, opponendosi ai Papi si appropriarono del diritto di nominare personalmente i Vescovi. Diedero così il via alla “lotta per le Investiture” (1076-1122), scoppiata tra papa Gregorio VII e l’imperatore Enrico IV della Casa di Franconia (successa alla Casa di Sassonia).

Pose fine alla lotta il concordato di Worms (1122), stipulato tra papa Callisto II e l’imperatore Enrico V, in cui si concordava che i Vescovi avrebbero avuto una doppia investitura: religiosa dal papa e politica dall’imperatore.

Nei secoli a venire Papi ed Imperatori furono spesso in lotta tra di loro.

Allo stesso tempo i feudatari e le città d’Italia e di Germania avevano conquistato una maggiore indipendenza.

Papi e Imperatori - Barbarossa
Federico Barbarossa

Quando la corona imperiale, quella di Germania e Italia, passò alla Casa di Svevia, i Comuni italiani appoggiati dal Papa, difesero la propria libertà contro l’imperatore Federico Barbarossa, il quale più volte attaccò l’Italia. Tuttavia alla fine con la pace di Costanza (1183) dovette concedere ai Comuni italiani la piena autonomia.

Papi e Imperatori - - Federico II
Federico II
Particolarmente aspre furono le fra i Papi e Federico II di Svevia.

Figlio di Costanza d’Altavilla e di Enrico VI della Casa di Svevia, ancora giovane salì al trono del Regno delle Due Sicilie. In un primo tempo papa Innocenzo III l’appoggiò. Arrivò a nominarlo imperatore contro il volere dei grandi feudatari tedeschi, che volevano fosse nominato Ottone IV di Brunswick.

La contesa divenne internazionale, l’Inghilterra (governata da Giovanni Senza Terra) si pose al fianco di Ottone, la Francia si schierò con il Papa e Federico II.

Alla fine, Filippo Augusto, re di Francia, ottenne la vittoria nella battaglia di Bouvines (1214) in seguito alla quale Federico II venne riconosciuto re di Germania, d’Italia e di Sicilia e imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero.

Subito dopo i suoi rapporti con il Papa cambiarono.

Infatti Federico II non mantenne la promessa fatta a papa Innocenzo III che gli chiedeva in cambio del titolo di Imperatore, di rinunciare alle corone di re d’ Italia e di Sicilia.

Nuovamente scoppiarono numerose lotte, che videro schierati contro l’Imperatore i Comuni italiani e le truppe del papa. Quando Federico morì, gli successe Corrado IV, ma anche lui morì giovane lasciando il regno al piccolo Corradino.

Per risolvere le ostilità con il Regno delle Due Sicilie, il pontefice francese Clemente IV, chiese aiuto a Carlo d’Angiò, fratello del re di Francia Luigi IX, che vinto prima Manfredi, zio di Corradino (1266) ed infine anche Corradino si installò sul trono del Regno delle Due Sicilie, dando origine alla dominazione angioina.

Ben presto il malcontento dei sudditi si fece sentire.

La rivolta iniziata a Paleremo il lunedì di Pasqua del 1282 ( i Vespri Siciliani) si stesa rapidamente in tutto il Regno.

I ribelli chiesero aiuto a Pietro III d’Aragona, re della Spagna settentrionale. La rivoluzione si trasformò così in una guerra tra Aragonesi e Angioini che durò per vent’anni (1282-1302).

Alla fine la Sicilia passo definitivamente agli Aragonesi, mentre il regno di Napoli rimase agli Angioini.

Negli anni l’espansione degli Aragonesi nel Mediterraneo crebbe con la conquista della Sardegna (1327) e del regno di Napoli (1442).

Fino al XIII secolo, la storia dell’Europa gravitò intorno al Sacro Romano Impero e al Papato. Quando Papi ed Imperatori cessarono di essere in pace fra di loro, ambedue persero buona parte della loro autorità.

Il Papato si trovò alla testa di tutta l’Europa durante le Crociate, soprattutto con papa Innocenzo II (1198-1216).

Dopo di lui salirono al soglio pontificio alcuni papi che commisero vari errori nel campo politico, tanto che nel 1305 la sede pontificia da Roma fu trasferita in Francia, ad Avignone, dove rimase fino al 1377

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